2 A. Metals Physical Properties: Hardness Shininess Malleability DuctilityChemical Properties: Reactivity; ease and speed the element combines or reacts with other elements.
3 B. Families of MetalsAlkali Metals (Group 1): So reactive that they are never found uncombined in nature. As pure elements they are soft and shiny.Two most important:SodiumPotassium
4 Alkaline Earth Metals (Group 2): Not as reactive as group 1 but more reactive than most metals. a. Two most important:1) Magnesium (combines with aluminum)2) Calcium
5 Transition Metals (Groups 3 through12) a. Not much difference between columnsb. Fairly stable; react slowly or not at all
6 C. Nonmetals & Metalloids 1. Nonmetals: The physical properties of nonmetals are opposite those of metals-Dull-Brittle-Not ductileMost nonmetals form compounds except Group 18
7 D. Families of Nonmetals 3. Carbon Family (Group 14)-All living things contain compounds that are made of long chains of carbon atomsNitrogen Family (Group 15)Oxygen Family (Group 16)Halogens (Group 17)- All of these elements are highly reactive and most are dangerous to humans7. Noble Gases (Group 18)-Chemically very stable; do not ordinarily form compounds.
8 E. MetalloidsLocated on the border between the metals and the nonmetalsHave some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of nonmetalsThe most common metalloid is siliconThe most useful property of the metalloids is their varying ability to conduct electricity. (Semiconductors)
9 F. Periods/Rows = the # of energy levels For Example:a) Row 1 has 1 energy levelb) Row 2 has 2 energy levelsc) Row 3 has 3 energy levels and so on.
10 G. Number of Valence Electrons The family # tells you how many valence electrons with the following exceptions:a) Transition Metals: The number of valence electrons varies.b) Groups 13 through 18: Drop the 10, they have 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, & 8 valence electrons respectively.The End;-)