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Unit 4: Periodic Table & Periodic Trends

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1 Unit 4: Periodic Table & Periodic Trends
EQ: How does the organization of the periodic table allow us to make predictions or determine the behavior & properties of elements?

2 GPS SC4. Students will use the organization of the Periodic Table to predict properties of elements. a. Use the Periodic Table to predict periodic trends including atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, and electronegativity of various elements. b. Compare and contrast trends in the chemical and physical properties of elements and their placement on the Periodic Table.

3 Key Vocabulary Terms Law of Octaves Periodic Table Periodic Law
Periods Group/ Family Valence Electron Periodic Trends Atomic Radius Ionic Radius Ionization Energy Electronegativity Electron Affinity

4 The History Dobereiner Found elements could be put in Triads Newlands
Discovered the Octet Rule when classifying elements Mendeleev First to organize elements by increasing mass to create the Periodic Table

5 J. W. Dobereiner ( ) Observed that several elements could be classified into sets of three a.k.a. Triads His Triads included…. Lithium, Sodium, and Potassium Calcium, Strontium, and Barium Chlorine, Bromine, and Iodine

6 Triads Grouped By Similar Chemical Properties
Many Properties of Middle Elements Are Approximate Averages Of The Properties Of The 1st And 3rd Element

7 EXAMPLE ELEMENT ATOMIC MASS Density Cl 39.5 1.56 Br 79.9 3.12 L 126.9

8 J.A.R. Newlands ( ) Presented the idea that when the elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, the properties of every eighth element was like that of the first in the set:1st-8th, 2nd-9th, and so on Called the pattern the law of octaves

9 Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) Lothar Myer (1830-1895)
Published nearly identical schemes for classifying the elements Mendeleev is given more credit since he published first and was more successful at demonstrating it Mendeleev also put breaks in the Table where other elements were yet to be found b/c he knew they had to fit in to make the table work right

10 Mendeleev Noticed that when he arranged the elements by increasing atomic mass he could see a periodic repetition of their properties Used this to create the first Periodic Table Wanted to make the elements easier to learn and understand

11 Moseley Moseley Developed atomic number concept for the atom
Arranged elements by increasing atomic number rather than mass as Mendeleev had

12 The Periodic Law when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, their physical and chemical properties show a periodic pattern

13 A. Periodic Law When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic #, elements with similar properties appear at regular intervals.

14 Reading the Table Groups/Families are elements with similar properties and run up and down. There are 18 families. Periods run left to right on the table. There are 7 periods. Groups to remember (1)- Alkali Metals (2)- Alkaline-earth Metals (3-12)- Transition Metals; d-block Inner transition Metals (bottom); f-block (17)-Halogens (18)- Nobel Gases

15 Reading the Table (Cont.)
Metals Have luster (a shine) Good conductors (of heat & electricity) Solids usually Malleable (can be pounded into sheets) Ductile (pulled into a wire) Nonmetals No luster Poor conductors Many are Gases Big variation in physical properties Metalloids/ semi-metals --Have properties of metals and nonmetals -form the steps; except Al.

16 Electrons and The Table
Electrons fill atoms in s-, p-, d- and f- orbitals. These orbitals have a location on the P.T. S-block: left side. P-block: right side. D-block: Transition Metals. F-block: Inner Transition Metals.

17 Classification of the Elements
The periodic table is divided into blocks that correspond to the sub-levels that are being filled with electrons S block: Group 1& 2 P block: Groups (except for Helium) D block: transition metals F block: inner transition metals

18 Classification of the Elements
The periodic table is one of the most important tools in chemistry Elements are arranged according to atomic number, but the periodic table also relates to atomic structure and trends among the elements Elements can be classified into 4 categories according to their electron configurations

19 Classification of the Elements
The noble gases Elements in which the outermost s and p sublevels are filled Also known as inert gases The representative elements Elements in which the outermost s or p sublevel is only partially filled Usually called the Group A elements Group 1 elements are the alkali metals Group 2 elements are the alkaline earth metals

20 Important Group names Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Halogens Noble Gases

21 Classification of the Elements
The transition metals Metallic elements in which the outermost s sublevel and nearby d sublevel contain electrons Called the Group B elements Characterized by the addition of electrons to the d orbitals The inner transition metals Metallic elements in which the outermost s sublevel and the nearby f sublevel generally contain electrons Characterized by the filling of f orbitals

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