Presentation on theme: "Families or Groups red group = 1 electron in their outer shell"— Presentation transcript:
1 Families or Groups red group = 1 electron in their outer shell orange group = 2 electrons in their outer shellAs you keep counting the colored columns, you add an additional electron.Purple has 8 electrons in its outer shell.(Don’t include the white group)An example of the families are shown here. All elements in the red column have l electron in its outer orbit. When you move on to the other elements in the colored columns an electron is added. The middle columns that are not colored follow a different order. Those we will discuss in another lesson.
2 Using the Rows Row = “period” not alike in properties all of the rows go from left to right.some squares are skipped in betweenWhen looking at the rows of the periodic table, please remember that unlike the columns, they are not alike in properties. The period of an element tells the number of atomic orbitals. All of the elements in the same period have the same number of orbitals.
3 Using the RowsAs a rulethe first element in a period is usually an active solid.the last element in a period is always a noble gas.atomic mass generally increases form left to rightthere are exceptionsThe left side of a period is usually an active solid, meaning it is ready to give away one its electrons. The last element on the right side of a period are called the noble gases. They don’t want to gain or lose electrons. They or happy with the 8 in their outer shell. Also, the atomic size decreases from left to right across the row, but the mass increases across a period.
4 ExampleEvery element in the top row (first period) has one orbital for its electrons.Every element in the second row (the second period) have two orbitals available.Atoms on the left are usually larger and lighter.Atoms on the right are usually smaller and heavier.The periods are color coded to show each row. Every element in the top row (1st period) has on orbital for its electrons. Every elements in the second row (2nd period) has two orbitals for their electrons and we continue down the chart. As said before, the atoms of the elements on the left are usually larger and lighter, and the atoms on the right are usually smaller and heavier.
5 Metals, Nonmetals, and Semiconductors In general, elements located in the left two-thirds or so of the periodic table are metals.The nonmetals are on the right side of the table.The dividing line between the metals and nonmetals are elements called semiconductors.When looking at several periodic charts, you will see many color variations. Some without color at all. One other way the chart can be color coded to help you understand it is by its element. It will separate the elements into metals, nonmetals, and conductors. The metals and nonmetals are separated, although not in a straight line, by the semiconductors, those elements that sometimes act like metals and sometimes act like nonmetals.
7 Metals good conductors of heat and electric current freshly cleaned or cut surface will have a high luster, or sheenreflect lightsolids at room temperatureexcept for mercury (Hg)Ductile - can be drawn into wiresMalleable - can be hammered into thin sheets without breaking
9 Non-Metals gases at room temperature nitrogen and oxygenfew solids (sulfur and phosphorus)one liquid (bromine)
10 metalloidgenerally has properties that are similar to those of metals and nonmetalsunder some conditions, a metalloid may behave like a metal. Under other conditions, it may behave like a nonmetal.
11 A groups… Groups 1A through 7A = representative elements Group 1A elements = alkali metalsGroup 2A elements = alkaline earth metalsGroup 7A = halogensGroup 8A = noble gases (filled energy levels)
12 B Groupseparate the A groups on the left side of the table from the A groups on the right sideTransition metals - copper, silver, gold, irond blockInner transition metals - characterized by f orbitals that contain electrons.f block
14 Atomic radiusone half of the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when the atoms are joinedone trillion, 1012, picometers in a meter
15 atomic size increases from top to bottom within a group and decreases from left to right across a period.
16 Across a periodincreasing nuclear charge pulls the electrons in the highest occupied energy level closer to the nucleus and the atomic size decreases
17 ION an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge form when electrons are transferred between atomsCation = + chargeAnion = - charge
18 Ionization the energy required to remove an electron from an atom first ionization energyThe energy required to remove the first electron from an atomdecreases from top to bottom within a groupincreases from left to right across a period