Presentation on theme: "The Media An Introduction AP Government Chapter 12, Theme A."— Presentation transcript:
The Media An Introduction AP Government Chapter 12, Theme A
Media Basics Here & Abroad US press one of the freest in the world: John Peter Zenger case 1 st Amendment Strict libel laws Private ownership of media outlets Leaks are commonplace FOIA allows media to force transparency
Types of Media Print media: magazines, pamphlets, books, and newspapers Declining in importance Many print resources folded or no longer in print Advertisers have abandoned for electronic media Almost no regulation
Types of Media Electronic media: Television, radio, Internet Largest source of information Constantly evolving Radio & TV regulated by FCC Internet lacks any real regulation Internet today allows many sources of information—pluralist power
Periods in Journalism in US The Party Press Expensive & usually exclusive to political elites Small area of circulation Many newspapers and editors were on government payroll From founding until mid-1800s newspapers were overtly partisan
Periods in Journalism in US Rise of the Popular Press Development of high-speed rotary press Telegraph invented— “News in a flash” Urbanization—Mass circulation Creation of Associated Press Profits via advertising, sensationalism & “yellow journalism” End of government subsidies—GPO created in 1860 Publishing moguls and their empires prospered (Hearst, Pulitzer)
Periods in Journalism in US Magazines of Opinion Driven by reform-minded Progressives Roots of investigative reporting AKA “Muckrakers” Sinclair, Buck, etc. Harper’s, Scribner’s & Atlantic Monthly were the forefathers of Time, Newsweek, & US News & World Report
Newspapers: Even with competition from cable and the internet, 63 million Americans read the paper. Rise of national papers EXAMPLES: Intense advertising competition 60% of cities have competing newspapers CONSEQUENCES (positive and negative)?:
Periods in Journalism in US Electronic Journalism 1920’s-1940’s: Radio is king Appealed to all ages in family Politicians could speak directly to constituents from any location Necessity by stations to include some speeches and ignore others FDR’s “fireside chats” during WWII made Americans feel informed and up-to-date on world events
Periods in Journalism in US Electronic Journalism 1950’s-1990’s: Rise of Television Telegenic candidates often win (Debates) Until 1990’s the “Big Three” were main sources of information for 80% of Americans News stories have been replaced by “sound bites” of less than 8 seconds CNN and other cable outlets led to the decline of Big Three News events are preferred over news stories
TV News: Coverage of news has been reduced to 15-45 second sound bites 24 hour, around the clock news coverage “Real time” news reporting Rise of reporting news with ideological agenda EXAMPLES: Many Americans, particularly young people, getting the news from late night television EXAMPLES: CONSEQUENCES (positive and negative)?:
Rise of Talk Radio: 9 of 10 Americans listen to radio, especially in their cars Rise of radio personalities EXAMPLES: Emergence of National Public Radio as legitimate news radio CONSEQUENCES (positive & negative)?
Periods in Journalism in US Electronic Journalism 2000’s to present—Emergence of Internet 68% of all American homes have Internet access (2009 Census Bureau) Information overload—consumer selects sources by choice & accident Social networking sites are the newest way to reach thousands with instant information
Internet A major source of news and information today According to the Pew Center, currently, 35% of Americans go online for news at least once a week The online news audience has been younger, male, better-educated and affluent, and this remains the case. Americans under the age of 50 are twice as likely as those 50 and over to go online for news at least once a week (43%-22%). CONSEQUENCES (positive and negative)?
Structure of US Media Newspapers are no longer competitive in most markets TV station are extremely competitive and usually focused locally, but have national ties AP, UPI Network affiliated Networks have national focus
Intense Competition: Both print and electronic media under tremendous pressure to be the first to report a story. CONSEQUENCES (positive and negative)?:
Roles of the Media Gatekeeper - influence what subjects become national political issues, and for how long. EXAMPLES: The Ebola Scare Scorekeeper - help make political reputations, court the “Great Mentioner” & decide who winners & losers are in Washington. Often leads to coverage of presidential elections as horse races. EXAMPLES: Rand Paul Watchdog - Follow closely the front-runner candidates, searching for “skeletons” in closet. Maintains close eye on all major candidates. EXAMPLES: Hilary Clinton Out of Touch
Assignment Read pp. 307-314. Take notes by headings. Read and complete the CT packet on hard vs. soft news. You cannot do this assignment correctly in one night. It is an assignment that stretches over 3 days.