2 Invention of the Periodic Table Elements vary widely in their properties, but some elements have similarities in their properties.The first to notice that these properties varied in a regular pattern was John Newlands.He arranged the first 16 elements known at the time (except hydrogen) in order of increasing mass and then placed them in two rows.He noticed that the two sets of elements had similar properties. Because the properties repeated with the eighth element, he called his pattern the law of octaves.
3 John Newland’s octaves Li Be B C N O FNa Mg Al Si P S Cl
4 Mendeleev and the Periodic Table In 1870, the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev arranged all 63 known elements in such a way that:They were in order of atomic mass.They were arranged in a table in such a way that elements with similar properties were arranged in vertical columns.When this was done, the patterns of properties clearly repeated themselves in a periodic fashion.
5 Exceptions to the pattern Mendeleev had to reverse the order of two elements, tellurium and iodine.He assumed that the atomic weights were in error.When isotopes were discovered, it was found that he had correctly placed these elements in the order of their atomic numbers.Mendeleev also predicted that additional elements would be discovered to fill in gaps that he left to make the properties line up.
8 Horizontal Rows are called periods. Vertical columns are called groups.Groups have similar properties.
9 The elements are divided into three main groups: MetalsSemi-conductors or metalloidsNonmetals
10 Metals vs. Nonmetals Metals Nonmetals are good conductors of electricity.except for mercury, are solids at room temperature.Nonmetalsare poor conductors of electricity.exhibit a wide variety of properties.may be solids, liquids or gases at room temperature.
11 The alkali metals are very reactive, having only one electron in their outer shells. They tend to be verysoft.
12 The alkaline-earth metals are reactive, but not as reactive as the alkali metals. They are harder and have higher melting pointsthan the alkali metals.
13 Transition metals have outer electrons in d orbitals. They are generally not as reactive as the alkali oralkaline-earth metals.
14 Semiconductors or metalloids conduct electricity better than nonmetals but not as well as metals.
15 Halogens are nonmetals which are very reactive Halogens are nonmetals which are very reactive. They tend to form salts with metals.
16 The noble gases are nonmetals which are very inert, or unreactive. Their full outer shells account for this property.