4 Polymer Vs. MonomerPolymer: A large molecule made up of identical or similar building blocksEx. PolysaccarideStarchesMonomer: the building block that is used to make polymersGlucose
5 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are composed of C, H, O Most names for sugars end in –oseCH2O (Empirical Formula)(CH2O) C6H12O6Contains a Carbonyl (C=O) & many Hydroxyl (OH)Function: Energy & Storageex: sugars, starches, cellulose, chitin(CH2O)xC6H12O6carb = carbonhydr = hydrogenate = oxygen compound
7 Biological function of monosaccharides ENERGY!!!!Key parts of other molecules (e.g. nucleic acids, ATP)Monomers for Disaccharides & Polysaccharides.They form polymers in dehydration reactions.
8 Classifying Monosaccharides Monosaccharides are uniquely identified based on:The location of the carbonyl carbon in the straight chain formThe number of carbons presentThe spatial arrangement of carbons
9 Sugar structure 5C & 6C sugars form rings in solution Where do you find solutions in biology?In cells!
10 Identifying monosaccharides alpha-glucosebeta-glucoseThe arrangement of the –OH group on the #1 carbon does not matter when naming sugars.The location of the other groups on the 2,3,4, and 5 carbons does matter.
11 C C O C C C C Carbons are numbered energy stored in C-C bonds 5' 4' 1' 6'CO5'CC4'1'energy stored in C-C bondsCC3'2'
12 Carbon Skeleton 6 5 3 3-7 Carbons long Classified by number of carbons 6C = hexose (glucose)5C = pentose (ribose)3C = triose (glyceraldehyde)GlyceraldehydeHOHOCOHHHOCH2OHOGlucoseHOHHOORiboseCH2OH653
13 Functional groups determine function AldehydeCarbonyl at endKetoneCarbonyl inmiddle
20 Polysaccharides Polymers of sugars costs little energy to build Function:energy storagestarch (plants)glycogen (animals)in liver & musclesstructurecellulose (plants)chitin (arthropods & fungi)Polysaccharides are polymers of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides
21 Polysaccharides Polymers of sugars joined by glycosidic linkages. Serve two main functionsStorage- glycosidic linkages are hydrolyzed to obtain monosaccharides as energy is needed.Structural- make up the materials that are used to protect the organism.
22 Glycosidic BondsChemical linkage between the monosaccharide units of disaccharides, and polysaccharides, which is formed by the removal of a molecule of waterCondensation reactionBond forms between the carbon-1 on one sugar and the carbon-4 on the other.
23 Α & β Glycosidic Bonds in cellulose in starch An α-glycosidic bond- formed when the –OH group on carbon-1 is below the plane of the glucose ringA β-glycosidic bond is formed when it is above the plane.Ex. Cellulose- formed of glucose molecules linked by 1-4 β-glycosidic bonds (Above plane)Ex. Starch- composed of 1-4 α-glycosidic bonds (Below plane )in cellulosein starch
24 Polysaccharides- 100’s to 1000’s of monosaccharides Storage PolysaccharidesStructural PolysaccharidesStarchPlantsCelluloseGlycogenAnimalsChitinAnimals-InsectsFungi
25 Structural Polysaccharides Key in forming the structure of an organism.Most common structural polysaccharide is cellulose.Makes up cell walls in plantsUsed to make paperChitinPolymer of glucoseForms via 1-4 glycosidic linkage.
26 Cellulose Most abundant organic compound on Earth herbivores have evolved a mechanism to digest cellulosemost carnivores have notcellulose = undigestible roughageCross-linking between polysaccharide chains:= rigid & hard to digestThe digestion of cellulose governs the life strategy of herbivores.Either you do it really well and you’re a cow or an elephant (spend a long time digesting a lot of food with a little help from some microbes & have to walk around slowly for a long time carrying a lot of food in your stomach)Or you do it inefficiently and have to supplement your diet with simple sugars, like fruit and nectar, and you’re a gorilla.But it tastes like hay! Who can live on this stuff?!
27 Cow Gorilla can digest cellulose well; no need to eat other sugars can’t digest cellulose well; must add another sugar source, like fruit to dietThe digestion of cellulose governs the life strategy of herbivores.Either you do it really well and you’re a cow or an elephant (spend a long time digesting a lot of food with a little help from some microbes & have to walk around slowly for a long time carrying a lot of food in your stomach)Or you do it inefficiently and have to supplement your diet with simple sugars, like fruit and nectar, and you’re a gorilla.APBioTOPICS/20Biochemistry/MoviesAP/Macromolecule-Lifewire.swf
28 Helpful bacteria How can herbivores digest cellulose so well? BACTERIA live in their digestive systems & help digest cellulose-rich (grass) mealsRumen-Upper part of stomach
29 Digesting starch vs. cellulose enzymestarch easy to digestcellulose hard to digestStarch = all the glycosidic linkage are on same side = molecule lies flatCellulose = cross linking between OH (H bonds) = rigid structureenzyme
30 Plant Storage Polysaccharides Starch is the main storage polysaccharide- Found in two forms.Amylose- main storage polysaccharide found in plants.1-4 glycosidic linkage found in glucose.Amylopectin- also in plants.Like starch with branching.Branch occurs with a 1-6 glycosidic link.
31 Storage Polysaccharide in Animals Glycogen is the main storage polysaccharide in animals.It is even more highly branched than amylopectin.Stored primarily in muscle and liver cells and is used when glucose stores are low.
33 Linear vs. branched polysaccharides slow releasestarch(plant)energy storageCan you see the difference between starch & glycogen?Which is easier to digest?Glycogen = many branches = many endsEnzyme can digest at multiple ends. Animals use glycogen for energy storage == want rapid release.Form follows function.APBio/TOPICS/Biochemistry/MoviesAP/05_07Polysaccharides_A.swfglycogen(animal)fast release
35 Difference between starch and cellulose Starch production involves 1-4 glycosidic linkage of a-glucose monomers.Helical shapeCellulose production involves 1-4 glycosidic linkage of b-glucose monomersNever branched , straighta- Glycogenb- CelluloseDoes this matter?
36 (a) and glucose ring structures Fig. 5-7a Glucose Glucose(a) and glucose ring structures
37 (b) Starch: 1–4 linkage of glucose monomers Fig. 5-7bc(b) Starch: 1–4 linkage of glucose monomers(c) Cellulose: 1–4 linkage of glucose monomers
38 Chitin Chitin is the structural polysaccharide in arthropods Ex. insects, spiders, crustaceans, and fungi.Similar to cellulose, but it has a slightly different monomer that is a derivative of glucose
39 (a) The structure of the chitin monomer. (b) (c) Chitin forms the Fig. 5-10(a)The structureof the chitinmonomer.(b)Chitin forms theexoskeleton ofarthropods.(c)Chitin is used to makea strong and flexiblesurgical thread.
40 YES, It matters! Cellulose has a much different structure than starch. In storage polysaccharides, the polymer hydrogen bonds mainly with itself to form helices (spirals)Ex. GlycogenIn structural polysaccharides, the polymer hydrogen bonds with other polymer strands to form a strands that form thread like structuresEx. Chitin & Cellulose