Presentation on theme: "Bullers Wood School, Chislehurst, Kent"— Presentation transcript:
1Bullers Wood School, Chislehurst, Kent How does Arctic ice affect shipping and navigation and how may this change in the future?Bullers Wood School, Chislehurst,KentWill this image be an increasingly common sight in the waters of the Arctic….?Ie despite the problems of global warming in the Arctic, could there be some benefits in terms of shipping and navigation??? Will ships loaded with containers be a common sight in 50 years time??
2Discussion topics: Ice in the Arctic Ice and navigation The impact of the seasons on the sea–iceCurrent shipping and navigation in the ArcticWhat would the benefits of less sea-ice be?Different opinions about shipping and navigation in the Arctic
3Ice in the ArcticThe ‘Arctic’ consists of the Arctic ocean and the land area surrounding it including parts of the Russia, Canada, Greenland and NorwayFor much of the year the Arctic Ocean is covered with sea-iceIce comes in different shapes and sizes – the indigenous people have around 80 terms for the ice!!!Indicate the countries on the map above
4Arctic Ice facts and formation (1) Average Arctic ice thickness is over 2 metres, but it varies….Newly formed ice: few millimetresOlder ice: over 10 metresCanadian Archipelago ice: 6 – 8 metresIn the winter salt water freezes at -1.8 degrees CelsiusThe frozen seawater floats freely in the ocean, moved by wind and water currents. It is called drift iceLarge chunks of drift ice are called ice floes – and can measure up to 9.7 kilometres acrossWhen drift ice joins together it’s called pack iceThe thickness of the ice is calculated "from the time it takes a radar pulse to travel from a satellite to the surface of the ice and back again" (NERC)
5Arctic Ice facts and formation (2) Sea ice has different stages of development, related to thickness and age. By age there are two distinctions: first year ice, and multiyear ice.First year ice: thicker than 30 centimetres but melts in the summer season Multiyear ice: survives the summer melt, reforms and gains in thickness: 2 to 4 meters thick 2 early forming types of ice are:‘Pancake ice’‘Grease ice’The thickness of the ice is calculated "from the time it takes a radar pulse to travel from a satellite to the surface of the ice and back again" (NERC)
6Pancake IcePancake ice is called this because it consists of round pieces of ice which can be quite thickEach piece of ice looks like a pancakeThe pancakes are formed by:flat but hard pieces of ice break offThese ice pieces are made round by the action of turbulent, high energy wavesSource: RGS Arctic website
7Grease Ice Grease ice is very thin and quite soupy It is formed by ice crystals being blown out of the water and being clumped togetherThe reason it is called grease ice is because its consistency resembles oil slicksSource: RGS Arctic website
8Some of the 80 types of ice… Greenlandic/Kalaallit EnglishSiku Sea iceAakkarneq Current formed sea iceQilliliaq Sea ice, with no snow on itSikuliaq Sea ice – thin iceManiillat Uneven, pack iceTuaaq Sea ice connected with landSiku Ice on a lakeNutarmeq Thin ice formed in a closed crackIluliaq Ice bergSikup qaava Ice expanse
9The future of Arctic Ice… According to a NASA report (2006) about multi-year ice:“long term we find a reduction of between 6.4% and 7.8% per decade” (Dr Nghiem)(Data determined using the scatterometer on Nasa's Quikscat satellite)Source for this was a bbc article found onIn one year between 2004 and 2005 the loss was massive – 14% which is the size of Turkey – but this was a massive anomaly
10How does ice stop shipping? Ice – particularly pack ice - stops shipping by building up in the Arctic winter months, making it impassable for shipsAs a result, The Northern sea-route and North West Passage, both connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans is only passable during the Summer monthsHowever there may be large lumps of ice lurking beneath the waters surfaceThese lumps are potentially problematic if one makes contact with the hull (bottom) of the ship…..There could be a torn hull,The propeller may get damagedThe ship may sink (we have all seen the film ‘Titanic’)all the cargo will get scattered and any crew may drowngreat loss in financial termsMention that the Northern sea-route and North-west passage will be located later.Verbally link to the environmental cost of lost cargo and sinking ships.
11What impact do the seasons have on sea ice? During the winter months the Arctic is tilted away from the Sun and therefore receives little heat, light or radiationThis means sea-ice builds up in the colder months, as the temperature is below the freezing point of waterIn the Arctic Summer the area is subjected to 24 hour daylight, causing the sea-ice to break apart and meltGlobal Warming has meant the melting of sea-ice has increased due to the increase of the atmospheric temperature
12Annual Growth and Retreat of the Polar Ice packs.
13How do the seasons affect Shipping in the Arctic? Between late June / early July and early August the North Pole is titled towards the SunDuring this summer period, the Arctic is constantly being bathed in the Sun’s heat, causing the ice to melt and the seas to flow more freelyAs a result, between August and early October, ships could potentially pass through the Arctic Ocean because most hidden ice has melted leaving a safer route – largely ice freeHowever, as yet, the ice free period is not long enough to make use of the Arctic for commercial shipping a realistic financial optionTime lag between the period when the north pole receives most heat from the sun and when the ice has melted because there is a time lag during which the water heats up (it does not happen instantaneously!).
14Current Navigation and Shipping in the Arctic Despite the dangers, shipping and navigation does happen in the Arctic Ocean. Even in Winter months!!Shipping is assisted by:Ice-breakersIce-navigatorsRefer to each of the photos when you introduce the ice-breakers and ice-navigators
15Ice-BreakersIce-breaker ships are used to break the ice in the Arctic so that ships can get through the Arctic safelyIcebreaker features:They are very heavyThey have sloping bowsThe bow is heavily re-inforcedThey are very powerfulThe icebreaker's bow passes over and on top of the ice at speedThe bow then forces down heavily on the ice, breaking it upAs the ice-breaker moves forward, this leaves an ice free channel through the ice-packMUST mention that the ice-breakers work this way to take advantage of gravity. Heavy bow of ship creates heavy downward force on the ice due to gravity
16Ice NavigatorsIce navigators work on ice breakers or on ice class shipsThey help and advise the captain when they are crossing through the ArcticTheir information comes from maps and satellites, such as Radarsat – 1 and MODISWhen an Ice Navigator is on the ship there are many things they have to endure such as:HypothermiaStressDarknessFrostbiteIce on the shipSee the ice navigator’s story on
17Current Navigation in the Arctic There are 2 shipping routes through the Arctic which connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans:The Northwest passage through the Canadian archipelagoThe Northern Sea route which follows the coastline of Norway, Russia and JapanBoth routes enter the Pacific Ocean through the Bering StraitsArrows appear for each of the countries mentioned
18The Northern Sea RouteThe Northern Sea route provides more economic benefit than the North west passageIt is an easier and shorter routeIt also provides access to oil fields in the ArcticThe Northern sea route is ice free for 8 weeks but with ice-breaker assistance, ice-strengthened vessels can sail during winterThe route is used primarily by Russia who also claim jurisdiction over the watersRussia can therefore control access and useage of the route
19The Northwest Passage The passage is ‘open’ from July to October But it is navigable for ships for only 4 – 6 weeks each summer2007: clear of ice for first time since records began (30 years ago) according to the European Space AgencyCurrently Canada claims full rights over the parts of the route that pass through its territoryThis is disputed by the EU and the USA who argue that it should be an international straitIf Canada ‘owns’ the passage it then they could make it expensive for vessels of other nationalities to use the waters and they can ‘control’ what passes through it
20What would be the benefits of less sea ice? Between 1972 and 1990 the ice extent in the summer prevented major commercial use of either 2 routes through the ArcticThe projected ice extent in 2030 would allow much greater use of the Arctic oceanCommercial activities:Container shippingOil and gas explorationTourismIndicate the 2030 ice extent – shown as animated arrowSTRESS that these could be the POTENTIAL benefits of less sea-ice!!!
21Container shipping (1)Economies and consumers in Europe and North America depend on goods made in Asia – especially ChinaThe majority of goods found on the UK high street were made in Asia.They are shipped from production sites in Asia to markets in North America and Europe in containers.WE rely on the transport of containersStress the link to globalisation from your studies. Try to explain why this is so….
22Container shipping (2)Using containers on large vessels makes the transport cost per item much cheaper due to economies of scaleHowever, the economic and environmental cost of transport increases with increased distance and delays to the transit…..Stress the link to globalisation from your studies. Try to explain why this is so….
23Container shipping route Containers are currently shipped from Asia to Europe via Singapore, the Indian Ocean, the Suez Canal and the Mediterranean SeaThis general route is followed by all container shipping companiesThis shipping route map is from a company called Maersk – the largest container shipping company in the world
24The Suez Canal and the Northern Sea Route The Northern Sea Route goes to the North of Eurasia through the Arctic and South to EuropeThis would save time and resourcesThe Suez Canal Route is longer and there are potential delays in congested Asian ports and the Suez canalIndicate where it passes through the Suez canal. Congested Asian ports could be Singapore or Hong Kong
25A New route option? (1)Using the Northern sea route would reduce journey lengths by 10 days. (from North Asia to Northwestern Europe)Ships currently travel miles from Japan to Europe via the Suez Canal but if they use the northern sea route it would be 5570 miles.A reduction of 7270 miles(source: Jerome Varny, “Container shipping on the Northern sea-route”)
26A New Route option? (2)Commercial use of the Northern sea route or Northwest Passage might be a very tiny benefit of global warming.Reduced distance means reduced fuel consumptionBillions of dollars in transportation costs could be saved each year, potentially making goods in shops cheaper for consumersReduced fuel useage means less fossil fuels are being burnt to create energy.In turn this reduces the amount of CO2 being released into our atmosphere, potentially reducing the contribution of shipping to the enhanced greenhouse effectLink to map
27Oil and Gas supply benefits? (1) With the increase in Global Warming the Arctic Sea Ice is melting in greater quantitiesThis means that there is easier access to the sea-bed belowRussia has staked a claim on the sea-bed beneath the ice possibly due to the potential of oil / gas reservesRussia was so keen to stake their claim that a Russian submarine was in fact able to break through under the ice to plant a flag 2 miles beneath the surface of the ice.
28Oil and Gas Supply benefits? (2) The dark patches on the map show oil/gas reserves.In the Arctic sea ice and surrounding area there is 90 billion barrels of oilThis is enough to supply the world for three years at current consumption ratesThis would be a massive benefit for the world because known reserves are running outSay if needed: or to supply America for 12, and 1,670 trillion cubic feet of gas, which is equal to about a third of the world's known gas reserves. Indicate where the oil / gas reserves are on the map
29Oil and Gas Supply benefits? (3) Oil produced in Alaska could move quickly by ship to eastern North American and European markets.The vast mineral resources of the Canadian North will be much easier and economical to develop.This opportunity for fast and cheap shipping between the Atlantic and Pacific is one of just a very small number of benefits that global warming might produce.
30Tourism Benefits? Tourism may increase in the Arctic because : bigger ships can now travel round the Arctic, meaning more peopleThere will be more ports to stop off at to make the tourist’s trip more excitingThe tourists will have a chance to see the Arctic wildlife in their natural habitat.However, with less sea ice there is a smaller area of ice habitat for animalsThis change to the natural ecosystem may mean that fewer tourists will want to visit
31Opinions about increased use of the Arctic for shipping Arctic Councilan expected increase in shipping threatens to:introduce invasive species,harm existing marine wildlife through collisionslead to damaging oil spillsSeabirds and polar bear and seal pups are particularly sensitive to oil and can quickly die of hypothermia if it gets into their feathers or furWhales, as well as walruses and seals, can have a harder time communicating, foraging and avoiding prey in noisy waters.“the Arctic marine environment is especially vulnerable to potential impacts from marine activity,”according to a recent report from the Arctic Council, an intergovernmental forum of Arctic nations. (
32Opinions about increased use of the Arctic for shipping Pablo Clemente-Colón (chief scientist at the National Ice Centre): the open water in the passages over Russia, particularly, remains clotted with thick, dangerous floes and can also close up in a matter of hours.Insurance companies will be reluctant to insure large commercial vessels due to the ice related risksContainer shipping companies will still prefer the longer Suez canal route due to the existing infrastructure (ports etc) and the difficulties of replicating them in the Arctic
33Our Opinion……At present the potential ice risks will make commercial shipping use of the Arctic too dangerous (we don’t want another Titanic!!)The environmental risks of shipping are too great to make use of the Arctic for shipping on a regular basisWe need to protect rare species of wildlife such as:Polar bearsWalrusesExploitation of oil and gas reserves will lead to much environmental degradation
34Our Opinion…….Use of the Arctic could create lots of geo-political conflict over the use of resourcesHowever, it does seem inevitable that the Arctic ocean will become increasingly used as global warming results in less sea-ice….Therefore it MUST be controlled by a global organisation