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Basic Structure of a Cell

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Presentation on theme: "Basic Structure of a Cell"— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Structure of a Cell

2 History of Cells & the Cell Theory

3 First to View Cells In 1665, Robert Hooke used a microscope to examine a thin slice of cork (dead plant cell walls) What he saw looked like small boxes

4 First to View Cells Hooke is responsible for naming cells
Hooke called them “CELLS” because they looked like the small rooms that monks lived in called Cells

5 Anton van Leeuwenhoek In 1673, Leeuwenhoek (a Dutch microscope maker), was first to view organism (living things) Leeuwenhoek used a simple, handheld microscope to view pond water & scrapings from his teeth

6 Beginning of the Cell Theory
In 1838, a German botanist named Matthias Schleiden concluded that all plants were made of cells Schleiden is a cofounder of the cell theory

7 Beginning of the Cell Theory
In 1839, a German zoologist named Theodore Schwann concluded that all animals were made of cells Schwann also cofounded the cell theory

8 Beginning of the Cell Theory
In 1855, a German medical doctor named Rudolph Virchow observed, under the microscope, cells dividing He reasoned that all cells come from other pre-existing cells by cell division

9 CELL THEORY All living things are made of cells Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in an organism (basic unit of life) Cells come from the reproduction of existing cells (cell division)

10 Cell Size and Types Cells, the basic units of organisms, can only be observed under microscope Three Basic types of cells include: Bacterial Cell Animal Cell Plant Cell

11 Number of Cells Although ALL living things are made of cells, organisms may be: Unicellular – composed of one cell Multicellular- composed of many cells that may organize into tissues, etc.

12 Which Cell Type is Larger?
_________ > _____________ > ___________ Plant cell Animal cell bacteria

13 Prokaryotes – The first Cells
Cells that lack a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles Includes bacteria Simplest type of cell Single, circular chromosome

14 Prokaryotes Nucleoid region (center) contains the DNA
Surrounded by cell membrane & cell wall (peptidoglycan) Contain ribosomes (no membrane) in their cytoplasm to make proteins

15 Eukaryotes Cells that HAVE a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
Includes protists, fungi, plants, and animals More complex type of cells

16 Organelles Very small (Microscopic)
Perform various functions for a cell Found in the cytoplasm May or may not be membrane-bound

17 Animal Cell Organelles
Ribosome (attached) Nucleolus Ribosome (free) Nucleus Cell Membrane Nuclear envelope Mitochondrion Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum Centrioles Golgi apparatus

18 Plant Cell Organelles

19 Cell or Plasma Membrane
Composed of double layer of phospholipids and proteins Surrounds outside of ALL cells Controls what enters or leaves the cell Living layer Outside of cell Inside (cytoplasm) Cell membrane Proteins Protein channel Lipid bilayer Carbohydrate chains

20 The Cell Membrane is Fluid
Molecules in cell membranes are constantly moving and changing

21 Cell Membrane in Plants
Lies immediately against the cell wall in plant cells Pushes out against the cell wall to maintain cell shape

22 Cell Wall Supports and protects cell
Found outside of the cell membrane

23 Cytoplasm of a Cell Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell membrane
Provides a area for chemical reactions to take place

24 More on Cytoplasm Contains organelles to carry out specific jobs
Found in ALL cells

25 The Control Organelle - Nucleus
Controls the normal activities of the cell Contains the DNA in chromosomes Bounded by a nuclear envelope (membrane) with pores Usually the largest organelle

26 Nuclear Envelope Double membrane surrounding nucleus
Also called nuclear membrane Contains nuclear pores for materials to enter & leave nucleus Connected to the rough ER Nuclear pores

27 Inside the Nucleus - The genetic material (DNA) is found
DNA is condensed & wrapped around proteins forming as CHROMOSOMES in dividing cells DNA is spread out And appears as CHROMATIN in non-dividing cells

28 What Does DNA do? DNA is the hereditary material of the cell Genes that make up the DNA molecule code for different proteins

29 Nucleolus Inside nucleus Cell may have 1 to 3 nucleoli
Disappears when cell divides Makes ribosomes that make proteins

30 Cytoskeleton Helps cell maintain cell shape
Also help move organelles around Made of proteins Microfilaments are threadlike & made of ACTIN Microtubules are tubelike & made of TUBULIN


32 Mitochondrion (plural = mitochondria)
“Powerhouse” of the cell Generate cellular energy (ATP) More active cells like muscle cells have MORE mitochondria Both plants & animal cells have mitochondria Site of CELLULAR RESPIRATION (burning glucose)

33 MITOCHONDRIA Has its own DNA Surrounded by a DOUBLE membrane
Folded inner membrane called CRISTAE (increases surface area for more chemical Reactions) Interior called MATRIX

34 Interesting Fact --- Mitochondria Come from cytoplasm in the EGG cell during fertilization Therefore … You inherit your mitochondria from your mother!

35 Endoplasmic Reticulum - ER
Network of hollow membrane tubules Connects to nuclear envelope & cell membrane Functions in Synthesis of cell products & Transport Two kinds of ER ---ROUGH & SMOOTH

36 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER)
Has ribosomes on its surface Makes membrane proteins and proteins for EXPORT out of cell

37 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER)
Proteins are made by ribosomes on ER surface They are then threaded into the interior of the Rough ER to be modified and transported

38 Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Smooth ER lacks ribosomes on its surface Is attached to the ends of rough ER Makes cell products that are USED INSIDE the cell

39 Endomembrane System Includes nuclear membrane connected to ER connected to cell membrane (transport)

40  Ribosomes Made of PROTEINS and rRNA “Protein factories” for cell
Join amino acids to make proteins Process called protein synthesis

41 Can be attached to Rough ER
Ribosomes Can be attached to Rough ER OR Be free (unattached) in the cytoplasm

42 Golgi Bodies Stacks of flattened sacs Receive proteins made by ER
Transport vesicles with modified proteins pinch off the ends CIS TRANS Transport vesicle

43 Golgi Bodies Modify, sort, & package molecules from ER
Look like a stack of pancakes Modify, sort, & package molecules from ER for storage OR transport out of cell

44 Golgi Animation Materials are transported from Rough ER to Golgi to the cell membrane by VESICLES

45 Lysosomes Contain digestive enzymes
Break down food, bacteria, and worn out cell parts for cells Programmed for cell death (AUTOLYSIS) Lyse (break open) & release enzymes to break down & recycle cell parts)

46 Cilia & Flagella Made of protein tubes called microtubules
Function in moving cells, in moving fluids, or in small particles across the cell surface

47 Cilia & Flagella Cilia are shorter and more numerous on cells
Flagella are longer and fewer (usually 1-3) on cells

48 Cell Movement with Cilia & Flagella

49 Vacuoles Fluid filled sacks for storage
Small or absent in animal cells Plant cells have a large Central Vacuole No vacuoles in bacterial cells

50 Vacuoles In plants, they store Cell Sap
Includes storage of sugars, proteins, minerals, lipids, wastes, salts, water, and enzymes

51 Chloroplasts Found only in producers (organisms containing chlorophyll) Use energy from sunlight to make own food (glucose) Energy from sun stored in the Chemical Bonds of Sugars

52 Chloroplasts Contains its own DNA
Contains enzymes & pigments for Photosynthesis Never in animal or bacterial cells Photosynthesis – food making process

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