2 Focus on while Reading: The Strengths and Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.The difference between the Federalist and Antifederalist views on government and how they would lead to the formation of political parties.The Compromises that were reached that made construction of the Constitution possible.The role played by the Bill of Rights in the ratification of the Constitution and why written guarantees of rights was so important to the Antifederalists.The economic plan developed by Alexander Hamilton to deal with the new nation’s economic issues.The Controversy surrounding the National Bank and Protective Tariffs.How the Marshall Court expanded powers of the Federal Government.Issues related to the disrespect shown to the infant United States by foreign powers such as Britain, France, and Spain.
3 IntroductionWhen the Proposal was made to declare independence from Great Britain in June of 1776 (Later adopted in July) it was also proposed that a new government based on a Confederation of the States be created. This new government would become the Articles of Confederation.The Articles of Confederation were approved by all the states by 1781, but by 1787 it was clear that they were insufficient to properly govern the new nation.A convention of the States was called to revise the Articles of Confederation, but it was soon clear that something entirely different needed to be created.The New Government quickly set out to create and establish the three branches of government, deal with key political and economic issues, and handle problems in dealing with foreign powers such as Britain, France, and Spain.
4 Unit 3.1: The Articles of Confederation were a first step towards government, maybe not such a good one.What problems faced the new nation in terms of creating a government that could unify the various States without causing a “counterrevolution”?How did the major features of the Articles of Confederation seek to address these issues?How did the successes of the Articles of Confederation compare to the failures of this first attempt at Government?How did the Articles of Confederation effect America’s standing in the World Community?
5 Unit 3.1: The Articles of Confederation were a first step towards government, maybe not such a good one.What problems faced the new nation in terms of creating a government that could unify the various States without causing a “counterrevolution”?The biggest issue that faced the framers of the Articles of Confederation was where supreme power would lie: in the hands of the States or in the hands of a Central Government.It would not be until the end of the American Civil War that this issue would finally be resolved.You have to remember that they were fighting a Revolution against a strong central government which had tyrannized them for many years, the idea that they would willingly choose to create a strong central government to rule over them was ludicrous.Other issues included:Would the Congress be Bicameral or Unicameral?How would representation in this body be apportioned?Would the larger states pay more taxes?The issue that held up ratification for four years was Virginia and New York’s land claims in the west.The bottom line was: what was their actual intent when they created the United States of America?
6 Unit 3.1: The Articles of Confederation were a first step towards government, maybe not such a good one.How did the major features of the Articles of Confederation seek to address these issues?If the Central Government is not going to be given sufficient power to deal with the nation’s problems, why have a central government at all? Clearly we saw the need for a unified United States of America, we just were not ready to accept what that meant.Components of the Articles of Confederation:A Unicameral LegislationCongress has no authority to impose taxesEach State has one vote in CongressNo National Court SystemNo Uniform CurrencyNo Chief Executive9 of 13 States have to agree in order pass any new legislationAll 13 have to agree in order to amend the Articles of ConfederationNo authority to regulate interstate or foreign tradeProblems immediately facing the new nation:To destroy any infant industry in the U.S., Great Britain began flooding the American market with cheaper manufactured goods.Infrastructure was in a state of neglect (roads, bridges, canals, etc.)No uniform currency drove up inflation (no tangible value could be attached to money in the U.S.)State trade restrictions meant that interstate trade was severely limited
7 Unit 3.1: The Articles of Confederation were a first step towards government, maybe not such a good one.How did the successes of the Articles of Confederation compare to the failures of this first attempt at Government?Successes:Carrying out the Revolution and negotiating the Treaty of Paris of 1783.Settling disputes over land claims in the west (particularly those of Virginia and New York) were key to prevent conflict between the States in this vital post-war era.Some states claimed land all the way to the Pacific Ocean, Virginia claimed land in what is today Minnesota, and several states would have been pinned down against the Atlantic Ocean with no hope of expansion.Land Ordinance of 1785This ordinance established a precedent for how future townships would be surveyed, how best to utilize public lands, and for government support for public education1/6 of the money from the sale of public lands would go toward establishing public education systems.Northwest Ordinance (Land Ordinance of 1787)Established a methodical process for advancing each territory toward statehood.Unorganized territories would be overseen by a government appointeeOnce the population reached 5,000 people they could elect a state legislature and send a representative to Congress.Once the population reached 60,000 they could draft a state constitution and apply for statehood.Five states would eventually be created from the “Northwest Territory”.
8 Unit 3.1: The Articles of Confederation were a first step towards government, maybe not such a good one.How did the successes of the Articles of Confederation compare to the failures of this first attempt at Government?Failures:Enforcing and Cooperating with the Treaty of Paris of 1783The Congress did not reimburse Loyalists for their lost property and did not facilitate the collection of debts owed by American citizens to British creditors.King George III refused to pull British troops out of forts and trade posts in the Ohio River Valley and the new Congress was powerless to do anything about it.Establishing the United States favorably in the World CommunityThe new Congress quarreled with Spain over navigation rights to the Mississippi River and territorial claims to what would eventually become Tennessee and Kentucky.Both Britain and Spain actively sought ways to prevent the United States from expanding to the west and growing their power.Dealing with the massive debt that arose from waging the American Revolution.With no power to tax, the States were left to deal with their debts on their own, some states took to taxing their citizens (especially farmers) very heavily.In Massachusetts angry farmers rebelled in Massachusetts (led by Daniel Shays) in an effort to shut down the state’s court system and prevent foreclosures.Shays’s Rebellion was eventually crushed, but all the “rebels” were pardoned and Massachusetts did change its tax laws.This event would later have a deep influence on the call to form the Federal System with a stronger central government that could prevent future rebellions.
9 Unit 3.1: The Articles of Confederation were a first step towards government, maybe not such a good one.How did the Articles of Confederation effect America’s standing in the World Community?The disunity that was plaguing the new nation was raising eyebrows in Europe.Our inability to force the British out of the Ohio River Valley, to effectively negotiate navigation rights to the Mississippi River, and to cooperate with each other State to State for the best interest of the nation all contributed to a general disrespect for the United States in European circles.The Europeans reasoned that since the individual states were embroiled in trade disputes, commercial agreements with the United States would be at best questionable.
10 Unit 3.2: The creation of a new Constitution created some division within a struggling nation. Describe early attempts to revise the Articles of Confederation and their shortcomings.What were the goals of the Framers of the Constitution and how did division between the interests of the Large States and Small States place these in jeopardy?What role did compromise play in moving the Constitutional process forward?Describe the difference between the Federalists and Antifederalists and describe the role played by the Bill of Rights in the ratification of the Constitution.
11 Unit 3.2: The creation of a new Constitution created some division within a struggling nation. Describe early attempts to revise the Articles of Confederation and their shortcomings.The Alexandria Conference (1785)Delegates from Virginia and Maryland met to discuss ways to improve navigation and commerce on the Potomac River. They decided to invite delegates from the other states to a meeting in Annapolis, Maryland to discuss commerce on a national level.The Annapolis Conference (1786)Eight states sent delegates to this conference, but only five arrived on time.Despite poor attendance, it was obvious that there was strong sentiment across the nation that the Articles of Confederation had to be revised.James Madison and Alexander Hamilton took it upon themselves to invite delegates to a national convention in Philadelphia.
12 Unit 3.2: The creation of a new Constitution created some division within a struggling nation. What were the goals of the Framers of the Constitution and how did division between the interests of the Large States and Small States place these in jeopardy?Despite being divided over certain issues, the delegates (especially motivated by the results of Shays’s Rebellion) had some common interests in creating a more effective governing body.Goals of the Framers:Prevent a “tyranny of the Majority”Prevent a “tyranny of the Minority”Create sufficient powers to foster both short- and long-term economic growthFormulate and conduct a more effective foreign policyInterests of the Large States:Bicameral Legislature (lower house elected by the people who would then appoint members to an upper house), an elected Chief Executive (President) that would serve only one term, creation of a judiciary system, and creation of a stronger central government while maintaining some aspects of the Articles of Confederation.These became part of what became known as the Virginia PlanInterests of the Small States:Unicameral Legislation with equal representation for all states, an Executive (with no veto power), and creation of a judiciary that could decide cases originated in State Courts.This becomes known as the New Jersey Plan
13 Unit 3.2: The creation of a new Constitution created some division within a struggling nation. What role did compromise play in moving the Constitutional process forward?The Commerce CompromiseThe South agreed to federal control of foreign and interstate tradeThe importation of slaves would be permitted for twenty more years (ending in 1808; but that does not mean slavery ended in 1808)The federal government was given the authority to collect import taxes (tariffs), but their would be no duties on exports.The Great (Connecticut) CompromiseThe representation of states in the House of Representatives (lower house of the legislature) would be based on population size.The representation of states in the Senate (upper house of the legislature) would be equal: two per state.All money bills must originate in the House of RepresentativesDirect taxes on states were to be assessed according to populationThe Three-Fifths CompromiseThree-Fifths of a state’s slave population would be counted for purposes of taxation and representation.A fugitive slave law requiring all runaway slaves to be returned to their owners
14 Unit 3.2: The creation of a new Constitution created some division within a struggling nation. Describe the difference between the Federalists and Antifederalists and describe the role played by the Bill of Rights in the ratification of the Constitution.FederalistsSupport typically came from coastal and urban areas and from the upper class.Prominent members included George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, Ben Franklin, and John Jay.They favored a strong central government to maintain peace and stability and the strengthening of the Union.AntifederalistsSupport typically came from rural agricultural areas, people suffering from debt, and those philosophically opposed to a strong central government.Prominent leaders included Patrick Henry, John Hancock, and George Mason, and Thomas JeffersonThey opposed a central government that did not guarantee protection of individual rights. They believed that the Constitution subordinated States’ RightsWhat’s the big deal about the Bill of Rights?The Federalists saw no need for a Bill of Rights: The government was elected by the people, the delegated powers already limited the potential for abuse, and that by enumerating the rights of citizens they were in fact limiting their rights.The Antifederalists contended that a Bill of Rights was absolutely essential to protecting the people against the people against tyranny.The deadlock was broken and the Constitution ratified when the delegates promised to add the Bill of Rights as a set of amendments once the constitution was ratified.
15 Unit 3.3: Intellectual influences on the Framers of the Constitution What “revolutions” in human thought deeply influenced the framers of the Constitution?How did the founders’ views on religion influence their thoughts on government?In what ways did the founders pull from the Enlightenment to create the new constitution?Provide some examples of how these ideas are found in the Constitution itself.
16 Unit 3.3: Intellectual influences on the Framers of the Constitution What “revolutions” in human thought deeply influenced the framers of the Constitution?The Scientific Revolution gave the world Galileo’s astronomical telescope and Leeuwenhoek’s microscope.Inventions such as these gave a new understanding to the workings of heavenly and human bodies.The evidence they collected indicated that everything in the Universe was governed by certain Natural Laws.Think of the Heart and how it is composed of different chambers , which all must function together in order to work.
18 Unit 3.3: Intellectual influences on the Framers of the Constitution How did the founders’ views on religion influence their thoughts on government?Revolutionary thinkers like Jefferson and Franklin believed God created the Universe but left it to man to identify the laws of the Universe.They concluded that God defined perfection, therefore everything he created should exist in a state of equilibrium.Since man was created in God’s image, everything they created (such as a political system) should reflect that equilibrium.
19 Unit 3.3: Intellectual influences on the Framers of the Constitution In what ways did the founders pull from the Enlightenment to create the new constitution?The Enlightenment expanded the Framers’ knowledge of natural law and how it governed human behavior.Newton’s laws of motion: for every action there is an equal and opposite reactionJohn Calvin: Human nature could not be trusted because men are selfish, greedy, and evil.Thomas Hobbes: Since man is basically evil, he requires a strong and powerful government to control his inclinations.
21 Unit 3.3: Intellectual influences on the Framers of the Constitution Provide some examples of how these ideas are found in the Constitution itself.BicameralismDividing the legislature into an upper and lower house allows each to check the authority of the other.FederalismPower is divided between a federal government and the states, although federal power is paramount. The states do have certain reserved powers such as overseeing elections and others enumerated in the Tenth Amendment. The Federal government has certain delegated powers such as declaring war, borrowing money, making all laws “necessary and proper”.Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances (see next slide)
22 Unit 3.3: Intellectual influences on the Framers of the Constitution Provide some examples of how these ideas are found in the Constitution itself.Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances (see next slide)Legislative BranchSet and collect taxes, borrow money, regulate trade, and coin moneySet up the Postal Service and issue patents and copyrightsDeclare warRaise and maintain an Army and NavyExecutive BranchCarry out and enforce the laws passed by CongressMake TreatiesServe as the Commander-in-ChiefJudicial BranchEstablish the Supreme Court and lower CourtsSpecify the kinds of cases that could be heard in Federal CourtDefined the jurisdiction of the Supreme CourtDefined acts of treason and set the requirements for conviction
24 Unit 3.3: Intellectual influences on the Framers of the Constitution Provide some examples of how these ideas are found in the Constitution itself.Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances (see next slide)Legislative BranchApprove Presidential appointmentsOverride Presidential vetoesImpeach the PresidentExecutive BranchVeto Acts of CongressMake appointments to the Cabinet, Federal Courts, Supreme Court, etc.Judicial BranchServe for lifeJudicial Review allows the court to determine the constitutionality of Acts of Congress
26 Practice Question #1Which one of the following was a major success of the Articles of Confederation?They ended the French and Indian WarThey led to the creation of a powerful United States NavyThey paved the way for closer economic ties with Great BritainThey devised land policies that would allow for the systematic incorporation of new states into the unionThey resolved the dispute over the powers of the central government and the powers of the States
27 Practice Question #2Of the following list of political leaders, which one was strongly opposed to the plan of government created by the delegates of the Philadelphia Convention?Patrick HenryGeorge WashingtonJames MadisonBenjamin FranklinAlexander Hamilton
28 Practice Question #3Which of the following is not a feature of the Articles of Confederation?They called for a bicameral legislatureUnanimity was required to amend the Articles of ConfederationNine of thirteen states were required to pass legislationThere was no national court systemEach state had one vote in Congress
29 Practice Question #4 Shays’s Rebellion did which of the following? Convinced many political leaders of the destructive consequences of a strong central governmentWas eventually suppressed when the federal government sent troops to MassachusettsConvinced some political leaders of the necessity of giving more power to the central governmentCame about when American settlers clashed with the British over western land claimsWas organized by the antifederalists who sought to prevent ratification of the Constitution
30 Practice Question #5Which important controversy was resolved by the Great (Connecticut) Compromise?Western land claimsRepresentation in CongressNo National CurrencyNo National militaryWeak Judicial Branch
31 Practice Question #6Powers granted to the Federal Government under the U.S. Constitution are expressed as which of the following?Enumerated PowersChecks and BalancesReserved PowersExecutive PowersUnicameral legislature
32 Practice Question #7All of the following are true regarding the antifederalists except which one?Their important leaders included John Hancock and Patrick HenryTheir political support came mostly from backcountry and agricultural areasDebtors were supporters of the antifederalistsThey were opposed to a strong central governmentThey maintained there was no need for a Bill of Rights
33 Practice Question #8 The Federalist Papers did which of the following? Were written by opponents of the Constitution, who feared that a tyrannical government would be a consequence of ratification.Were the intellectual ideas that shaped the creation of the Articles of ConfederationWere written by those who advocated maintaining the Articles of ConfederationClaimed that under the Articles of Confederation the States had too much power compared with the central governmentAttempted to calm the anxieties many had about the powers granted to the central government under the constitution
34 Practice Question #9North Carolina refused to ratify the Constitution:Because the government under the Articles of Confederation had not yet determined the status of its western land claimsUntil Congress imposed a boycott on the stateUntil the government removed British Forts from its western frontierUnless a Bill of Rights would eventually be addedUntil it was ratified by the other Southern states
35 Practice Question #10Which part of the government was not as fully developed as the others by the delegates to the Constitutional Convention?Judicial BranchState DepartmentHouse of RepresentativesSenateExecutive Branch
37 Unit 3.4: The debate between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson would shape the early republic How did Alexander Hamilton’s plan for the nation propose to deal with many of the nation’s problems?How did Hamilton’s Plan lead to the creation of the nation’s first political parties?What words of advice did President George Washington leave for the nation in his famous “Farewell Address”.
38 Unit 3.4: The debate between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson would shape the early republic How did Alexander Hamilton’s plan for the nation propose to deal with many of the nation’s problems?Hamilton was the first Secretary of the Treasury and as such advocated the accumulation of capital and expansion of the economy.Hamilton’s focus was to nurture the development of the nation’s manufacturing sector.Hamilton’s plan had four parts:The Tariff of 1789Would provide the government with much needed revenue and protect American industry by forcing foreign competitors to raise their pricesThe Report on Public CreditHamilton was able to get the Assumption Bill passed through Congress . The Southern States had opposed it, but they relented after the Capital was moved from New York City to Washington DC.The Assumption Bill allowed the Federal Government to pay off the nation’s domestic debts at face value and raised the nation’s credit rating.The Report on ManufacturingThis led to the passage of an excise tax on specific products (like whiskey) and various internal improvements (the National Road and Erie Canal were examples).The Creation of a National BankHamilton’s vision was that a National Bank (The Bank of the United States) would provide loans to Capitalist class and stabilize the nation’s currency.
40 Unit 3.4: The debate between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson would shape the early republic How did Hamilton’s Plan lead to the creation of the nation’s first political parties?The debate over Hamilton’s economic plan and the rationalization of the “Elastic” clause (Necessary and Proper Clause) led to the formation of the nation’s first political parties.The FederalistsThe Federalists believed in a government run by the wealthy elite and centered on the development of American Capitalism.They were led by Alexander Hamilton and they distrusted the common man.They favored a “loose” interpretation of the Constitution (the basis for the “Elastic” Clause) and limited voting rights.Most of their support came from the urban areas of the NortheastThe Democratic-RepublicansThe Democratic-Republicans believed in a government rooted in the “common man” and believed the future of the United States was in agrarian (agricultural) society.They were led by Thomas Jefferson and they distrusted the wealthy elite and their selfish motives and willingness to manipulate the government for their own advance.They favored a “strict” interpretation of the Constitution and increased voting rights.Most of their support came from the rural areas of the South
41 Unit 3.4: The debate between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson would shape the early republic What words of advice did President George Washington leave for the nation in his famous “Farewell Address”.After serving his second term George Washington chose to leave office (setting a precedent that would stand for 100 years until Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected for four terms) and presented a famous “Farewell Address” to the nation.In his Farewell Address Washington stated that:Maintaining national unity was imperative (prevent the disunity caused by sectionalism, interest groups, and class warfare).Obeying and supporting the principles and authority of the Constitution was essential the stability of the new government.That the nation should avoid the divisive nature of Political Parties.Creating permanent alliances with foreign powers would entangle the United States in foreign conflicts .There were some who favored an alliance with Great Britain to further enhance trade opportunities.Others favored an alliance with France in repayment for their assistance during the Revolution (“forgive us Lord if we forget the sacred sword of Lafayette”)
43 Unit 3.5: The new nation faces both foreign and domestic challenges How did settling treaties with European powers enhance American economic and political development?What efforts were made by the Federalist Party to stifle opposition and maintain their power in the new government, even at the expense of the Constitution?What was the response to the efforts of the Federalists and how, if successful, would these responses have effected the new government?
44 Unit 3.5: The new nation faces both foreign and domestic challenges How did settling treaties with European powers enhance American economic and political development?Washington’s administration faced some very serious early challenges.After implementation of the excise tax on Whiskey, Western Pennsylvania corn farmers threatened secession rather than pay the tax.Washington personally led a Federal Militia to Pennsylvania and put down the Whiskey Rebellion without a single loss of life.The settlement of the Whiskey Rebellion demonstrated the new Federal Government’s commitment to enforce its laws.First the French Revolution provided an interesting opportunity to become involved in European Affairs.The French revolutionaries were at war with the monarchy and hoped to create a Republic, consequently many Americans sympathized with the French Revolutionaries (however, that support faded during the “Reign of Terror”)Then when Britain and France went to war again, the United States found itself divided over which side to support.France’s Minister to the United States, Edmond Genet, violated protocol by bypassing Washington and appealing directly to the American public for support against the British (Washington demanded he be recalled to France)Washington settled both by issuing the Neutrality Proclamation
45 The Whiskey Rebellion and the French Revolution
46 Unit 3.5: The new nation faces both foreign and domestic challenges How did settling treaties with European powers enhance American economic and political development?The Washington Administration signed two treaties that somewhat calmed America’s relationship with Britain and Spain.Jay’s Treaty with Great Britain made some favorable progress on the British presence in the Northwest Territory, but the British refused to guarantee that the impressment of American merchant sailors into the British Navy would cease.Jay’s Treaty enraged those that supported France, and demonstrated Britain’s lack of respect for the new nation and the rights of neutrals.Even though the Treaty did get the British to evacuate their forts in the Northwest Territory, allowing them to maintain their trade posts enraged western fur traders.Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain granted navigation rights to American merchants , granted right of deposit (transfer of goods) in New Orleans without having to pay a tax to Spain, and the Spanish promised to stop inciting Native American tribes to violence.
47 Unit 3.5: The new nation faces both foreign and domestic challenges What efforts were made by the Federalist Party to stifle opposition and maintain their power in the new government, even at the expense of the Constitution?The Adams Presidency was a particularly turbulent experience for the Federalist Party.John Adams had won the Presidency by a very narrow margin and then was saddled with Thomas Jefferson as a Vice President (his political arch enemy).Adams’ own party deferred not to him, but to Alexander Hamilton for direction.When the U.S. refused to back the French in their war against the British they began attacking American shipping. When Adams sent a delegation to negotiate a settlement, they were met by the demand for a $250,000 bribe and millions in loans. This insult led to the Quasi War (an undeclared naval war in the Caribbean) and became known as the XYZ Affair.Adams did his best, despite the demands of his own party, to maintain Washington’s policy of neutrality.Hamilton used the issues with the French to move the U.S. toward a closer economic relationship with Great Britain.The Convention of 1800 ended the Franco-American Alliance of 1778
49 Unit 3.5: The new nation faces both foreign and domestic challenges What efforts were made by the Federalist Party to stifle opposition and maintain their power in the new government, even at the expense of the Constitution?The Federalists used their influence in Congress to move toward stifling criticism and opposition from the Democratic-Republicans. Inspired by Hamilton, the Federalists passed the Alien and Sedition Acts to neutralize any challenges to their power.The Naturalization ActAimed to silence criticism from French and Irish immigrants, it raised the residency requirement for citizenship from 5 to 14 years.The Alien (Friends) ActGave the President the authority to deport anyone he felt to be a threat to the United States.The Alien Enemies ActProvided for the deportation or imprisonment of individuals during a time of warThe Sedition ActWriting, speaking, or publishing criticism of the government was at the least a misdemeanor and at worst treasonous.Without question the Alien and Sedition Acts violated the First Amendment.
51 Unit 3.5: The new nation faces both foreign and domestic challenges What was the response to the efforts of the Federalists and how, if successful, would these responses have effected the new government?In the same year the Alien and Sedition Acts were passed the Virginia and Kentucky legislatures (at the urging of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison respectively) passed Resolutions establishing the concept of nullification through the “compact” theory of government.The “Compact” Theory was based heavily on the concept of States’ Rights.The Federal Government was created by the StatesThere are instances when conflicts arise between the rights of the States and the authority of the Federal GovernmentWhen these conflicts occur, the rights of the States take precedence over the actions and laws of the Federal GovernmentThe States have the right to declare acts of the Federal Government null and void, and therefore they do not have to apply those laws in their states.After winning a majority in Congress during the election of 1800 the Democratic-Republicans repealed the Alien and Sedition Acts.Despite the damage to their reputation, the Federalists did:Strengthen the Federal GovernmentEstablish a sound fiscal systemDiversified and strengthened the economy
52 Unit 3.6: The Jeffersonian Revolution of 1800 What were some key components of the election of 1800?How did Jefferson’s Presidency dramatically change the nature of the office from the administration’s of Washington and Adams?Describe some of the major events that took place during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson.
53 Unit 3.6: The Jeffersonian Revolution of 1800 What were some key components of the election of 1800?The election of 1800 represented a fundamental shift in American politics and a model for “peaceful revolution” as power changed from one party to the other without a coup of some sort.Ironically, Jefferson received significant assistance in his election campaign from Alexander Hamilton, who considered Jefferson the lesser of two evils compared to his opponent Aaron Burr.Hamilton’s differences with Burr would ultimately lead to a famous dual that resulted in Hamilton’s death.John Adams did everything he could do to obstruct the future presidency of Thomas Jefferson.The best example of this obstruction was the appointment of the “Midnight Judges”, a group of Federal Court appointees that were named and confirmed in the last days (even hours) of the Adams Administration.Adams, and other Federalists, hoped these appointments (coupled with Federalist Chief Justice John Marshall on the Supreme Court) would prevent Jefferson from radically restructuring the government or the economy.
55 Unit 3.6: The Jeffersonian Revolution of 1800 How did Jefferson’s Presidency dramatically change the nature of the office from the administration’s of Washington and Adams?“Jeffersonian democracy” was centered around the interests of the common man, the farmer, and the increased democratization of America.Jefferson was anti-capitalistic, favoring limitations on industry and corporate farming (he believed in the citizen farmer, the subsistence farmer)A Francophile, Jefferson moved the nation back toward a more positive relationship with FranceJefferson was less formal than George Washington and John Adams had been and tried to bring this “commoner” lifestyle to the White House.Jefferson did hold as many State Dinners, Formal Affairs, he typically wore casual clothing, and oftentimes answered the door at the Capital himself.
56 Unit 3.6: The Jeffersonian Revolution of 1800 Describe some of the major events that took place during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson.Jefferson, in general, followed the precedent of Washington and Adams continuing the foreign policy of neutrality.He used the policy of neutrality to further cut spending on defense, eliminate the excise tax, and cut the Federal Budget.The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 was the most significant event of Jefferson’s first term.With war on the horizon with Great Britain and the loss of its Colony in Haiti, Napoleon was desperate to get rid of Louisiana.Despite his belief in the “strict” interpretation of the Constitution and devotion to “small d” democracy, Jefferson saw the price France was asking for too good a deal to pass up.The purchase of Louisiana doubled the size of the nation, gave the U.S. control of the Mississippi River and the Port of New Orleans, and inspired the (later) Manifest Destiny movement.The Expedition of Lewis and Clark established that the territory was rich in various resources, that there were no major obstacles to expansion into the region, and that the Pacific Ocean was now “reachable”Rather than continue paying tribute to the Pasha of Tripoli (organizer of the Barbary Coast Pirates) to stop the seizing of American merchant ships, Jefferson sent United States Marines to invade Tripoli and end the attack on U.S. merchant shipping.
57 Unit 3.6: The Jeffersonian Revolution of 1800 Describe some of the major events that took place during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson.The conflict between Britain and France began to intensify in 1805 and the United States hoped to “cash in” by supplying both sides, but when Britain implemented a Naval Blockade of European Ports events began to spiral out of control.Britain’s primary aim was to cut off the lucrative Franco-American trade.The Essex DecisionTrade closed during peacetime could not be opened during wartimeThe French West Indies had been closed to American merchants during the Quasi War (which remember was never a declared war), so trade there should be closed during the Anglo-French War.The Chesapeake IncidentThe British Warship (HMS Leopard) fired on, stopped, and took crew from the U.S.S. Chesapeake.This was viewed by many Americans as an act of war.Orders in Council (1806 and 1807)Britain ordered a Blockade of European Ports, preventing neutral nations from trade in Europe.Berlin DecreeFrance ordered Blockade of British PortsMilan DecreeFrance declared that it would seize any ships that obeyed Britain’s “Orders in Council”
58 Unit 3.6: The Jeffersonian Revolution of 1800 Describe some of the major events that took place during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson.Jefferson, and his successor James Madison, attempted numerous peaceful solutions to the problems that were mounting the Great Britain. Their main aim was attack them commercially.The Nonintercourse Act of 1806Halted the importation of many British goods, did little to no harm to the British.Embargo Act of 1807Halted all foreign trade, nearly killed the New England shipping industry to the outrage of the Federalist Party.The Nonintercourse Act of 1809Re-opened trade with non-belligerents (those not at war) and would open trade with Britain or France if those nations would lift their trade restrictions on the U.S.Macon’s Bill No. 2 (1810)James Madison promised to resume trade with whichever nation first halted violations of American shipping rights.Napoleon falsely promised to repeal the Berlin and Milan Acts and the U.S. resumed trade relations with France.Britain was in the process of ending the policy of impressment when the U.S. declared War.
59 Unit 3.7: The Marshall Court expands Federal Power What main tenets became key aspects of the “Marshall Court”?How did John Marshall use the case of Marbury v. Madison to establish the Supreme Court as a vehicle for influencing American politics?Describe the major Court decisions that would expand the power of the Federal Government and how they would do so.
60 Unit 3.7: The Marshall Court expands Federal Power What main tenets became key aspects of the “Marshall Court”?John MarshallSecond Cousin of Thomas JeffersonPart of the delegation that became wrapped up in the XYZ AffairServed as Secretary of State under John AdamsWas a leading FederalistFoundations of the “Marshall Court”Expansion of the powers of the Federal GovernmentExpansion of the powers and jurisdiction of the Federal Court System, obviously including the Supreme CourtBlocking the ability of the States limit property rights and interfere in private contracts.Freeing American commerce from State-level restraints.
61 Unit 3.7: The Marshall Court expands Federal Power How did John Marshall use the case of Marbury v. Madison to establish the Supreme Court as a vehicle for influencing American politics?Marbury v. Madison was the first major case reviewed by the Marshall Court.Thomas Jefferson argued that the Judiciary Act of 1789 had given the Federal Court system greater power and jurisdiction than was allowed by the ConstitutionWilliam Marbury (one of the Midnight Judges appointed by John Adams) sued when Jefferson ordered Secretary of State James Madison not to deliver the commissions to the Federal Judges appointed by Adams.By ruling the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional (a victory for Thomas Jefferson; ironic because John Marshall was a Federalist) Marshall had established the concept of Judicial Review granting the Supreme Court the power to overrule both Congress and the President if those entities actions were proven unconstitutional.Although a defeat in the short-term for Federalists, it becomes a victory when the Marshall Court is able to expand the powers and jurisdiction of the Federal Government.
62 Unit 3.7: The Marshall Court expands Federal Power Describe the major Court decisions that would expand the power of the Federal Government and how they would do so.Marbury v. Madison (1803)Established the concept of Judicial Review, the power of the Supreme Court to determine the constitutionality of State and Federal legislation.Fletcher v. Peck (1810)State can pass no law that invalidates a contractMartin v. Hunter’s Lessee (1816)Established the supremacy of Federal Courts over States CourtsDartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)Reaffirmed Fletcher v. Peck that the states cannot alter or invalidate private contractsMcCullough v. Maryland (1819)The Federal Government has the “implied” power to create a National Bank, which could not be taxed by the States.Affirmed that Federal Law is absolute over State LawGibbons v. Ogden (1821)Gives the Federal Government jurisdiction over interstate tradeCohens v. Virginia (1821)Gives the Federal Supreme Court the right to review the decisions of State Supreme Courts in matters dealing with the authority of the Federal Government.
63 Practice Question #11Which one of the following did not serve in George Washington’s Administration (Cabinet)?Thomas JeffersonAlexander HamiltonJohn AdamsJohn MarshallHenry Knox
64 Practice Question #12 In the Report on Manufacturing: Hamilton sought to promote the agrarian sector of the economyHamilton and Jefferson promoted an excise taxJefferson argued that the nation should develop its infrastructureHamilton maintained that a small government would be more efficientHamilton supported policies that would protect American industry from foreign competition
65 Practice Question #13The first chief justice of the Supreme Court was which of the following?John MarshallJohn JayThomas PaineEdmond GenetThomas Pinckney
66 Practice Question #1414. The Compromise that led to the Assumption Bill involved Southerners accepting Hamilton’s economic program in return for which of the following?An end to the protective tariffLegalizing the slave tradeRelocating the nation’s capitol to the SouthPurchasing the Louisiana TerritoryShrinking the military budget
67 Practice Question #15The Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution did which of the following?Abolished SlaveryLed to the creation of the Judicial BranchGave to the Federal Government the authority to create a national bankPrevented a President from seeking a third termRequired that presidential and vice presidential candidates be from the same party
68 Practice Question #1616. Which one of the following represents an improvement in French-American relations?The Milan DecreeThe Orders of CouncilThe XYZ AffairThe Convention of 1800The Berlin Decree
69 Practice Question #17In his more than thirty years as a Supreme Court Justice, John Marshall did which of the following?Strengthening the powers of the states in relation to the federal governmentRuled time and again in support of the compact theory of governmentRuled that the Supreme Court could not overturn a decision handed down by a State Supreme CourtBlocked State regulations that limited property rightsUpheld the constitutionality of monopolies
70 Practice Question #18In which Supreme Court decision was the concept of Judicial Review established?Marbury v. MadisonDartmouth College v. WoodwardMcCullough v. MarylandGibbons v. OgdenFletcher v. Peck
71 Practice Question #19The concept of Judicial Review mean which of the following?The Executive Branch can veto legislationThe President has the final say in all decisions of the Judicial BranchThe Courts have the power to determine the constitutionality of lawsThe Supreme Court is required to review all bills passed by CongressA State Court can overturn a decision by the Supreme Court if it believes doing so would be in the State’s best interest
72 Practice Question #20Pinckney’s Treaty resulted in all of the following except which one?It improved Spanish-American relationsIt gave the Americans the right of deposit in New OrleansIt gave to the United States Spain’s Caribbean Islands in return for American aidIt settled the Florida boundary disputeSpain agreed to cease inciting Native American tribes against the Americans