2 What Good Readers Do Question the text, then search for answers Clarify unknown words or concepts,Summarize chunks of text while readingMake Predictions, then confirm or change predictionsMake inferencesUse context cues, text aids, graphicsRe-read unclear passagesVisualize what they are readingConnect text to prior knowledge and previously read sectionsUnderstand purpose of text
3 Norms for Reciprocal Reading Groups Everybody helpsGive reasons for your suggestionsNo one is finished until everyone is finishedYou have the right to ask for helpYou have the duty to offer helpYou have the duty to play your role
4 Whole-Class PracticeTeacher leads the whole class in silently reading together a segment of textStudents then question the teacher about the contentAfter a subsequent segment of text is read, the teacher questions the studentsAs the questioning process continues, students learn to imitate the teacher's questioning behavior.
5 Cooperative Reading Groups Students will be separated into groups by the teacher.Each student will be assigned a role to fulfill to increase each member’s understanding of the significance of the reading.
6 Questioning Role:Identify the kind of information that is significant enough to provide the substance for questions and then pose 4-5 such questions. Begin asking questions as soon as the Summarizer posts a summary. How to ask good questions:Use the 5 Ws + H questionsUse higher order questions:Why is _______ significant?Why does _______ happen?How do _______ and _______ compare? Contrast?What is most important?
7 Types of QuestioningOn-the-Surface Questions: (Who…What…Where….When….)Involve summarizing, paraphrasing, literal retellingInquire about what happens and what the text saysOne right answer found in the text, (more or less)(Some of these questions may begin with Why, How, Should, Could, Would.)
8 Types of Questioning con’t Under-the-Surface Questions:(Why….How….Should….Could….Would…)Generally have more than one right answer; not “point-able” in text; not explicitUsually require one or more of the following:Further researchFilling in gaps, making inferences, “reading between the lines”Predicting, speculating, asking what the text meansAsking about author’s purpose, message, moral,Hypothesizing, evaluating,Challenging the text, stating opinionsConnecting the text to self or knowledge of the world, extending beyond the text into reader’s own experience
9 Who?Where?What?When?1. Fill in information from the reading to answer the questions on each branch.2. Formulate other questions from these and other info in the reading.3. Form several under-the-surface questions.
10 Questioning ChartText SummariesQuestions answered in Text
11 Summarizing RoleAssume the role of summarizer and tell the group the important ideas and the supporting details from the section read. As summarizer, you are allowed look-backs initially but must eventually develop the skill of summarizing without reference to the text.How to do a summary:look for topic sentenceslook for who, what, when, where, why, and howomit unnecessary information
12 Summarizing con’t Summary-type statements: this story/paragraph is mostly aboutIt includes information aboutThe topic of this paragraph isThe author is trying to tell us thatThis story/passage about _______ begins with _______, discusses (or develops) the idea that ______, and ends with_____.
13 Summarizing Practice Chart Generate master list of lines from class recounting events of text. Write down everything that they think is important. Assign letters or numbers. Ask students to cut them down in half.Leave-inLeave-outuse criteria of: Importance to Plot, Character, Cause and Effect, Truth or Factdetermine that the information is: irrelevant, dead-end, opinion, or a repeat.
14 Key-LinesChoose the most important sentence in a portion of the text, or each paragraph, andgive or write evidence for why they chose those lines
15 Clarifying Role:Your job is to help clarify any information from the text, the summary and the questions that your group may not understand. Lack of understanding may result from lack of clarity in the text, summaries and/or questions, unknown words or phrases, insufficient background knowledge, as well as lack of connections among ideas in both the text and the summaries. Ask your clarifying questions and suggest helpful strategies as soon as the Questioner finishes asking questions and the members have finished answering them (about 15 minutes into the round).
16 Clarifying con’t How to help clarify: identify areas where understanding is still weakpropose strategies to address lack of understandingmodel strategic thinking for the groupClarifying statements:I don't really understandA question I have is _______One word or phrase I don't understand isWe can reread this sectionLet's see if we can find a context clue
18 Predicting RoleYou will predict, based on what has already been read, what information will be covered in the upcoming section of text as well as how the ideas may connect with what has already been read. As predictor, preview upcoming text, determine important ideas and their relationships among one another, and then offer a prediction to the team (5 minutes maximum).How to predict:look at titles and subtitlesread the first sentence or two of the upcoming sectionresummarize main points before going on
19 Predicting con’t Predicting statements: Based on the title/subtitle, I predict this is going to be aboutI already know these things about the story/topicBased on (a clue), I predict _______Based on what _______, said/did, I predict _________