Presentation on theme: "The Allied Response Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Allied Response Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Early American InvolvementMap: World War II in Europe and North AfricaWar in North Africa and ItalyFaces of History: Dwight D. Eisenhower
2 The Allied Response Preview, continued A Turning Point in the Soviet UnionA Turning Point in the PacificMap: War in the Pacific
3 The Allied Response Main Idea Reading Focus The early years of World War II went poorly for the Allies. But after the United States joined the war, the Allies soon recovered and began making gains against the Axis.Reading FocusIn what ways were Americans involved in the early years of the war?How did the Allies make gains in North Africa?What was the turning point in the Soviet Union?What was the turning point in the Pacific?
4 Early American Involvement The Battle of the Atlantic Control of the ocean importantFood and equipment for England and Soviet Union shipped by seaGermany relied on U-boatsInflicted great damage to shippingU.S. offered military aidProvided ships and military escorts for British convoysOctober 1941—USS Reuben James; first U.S. Navy ship sunk by Germany
5 American Home Front U.S. entered war two months later Enormous task of mobilization; men and women volunteered for serviceFactories converted; “victory gardens” planted; scrap drives and recycling to collect materialsSome negative effects of patriotismJapanese Americans placed in internment camps during the war
6 Winning the AtlanticWith U.S. officially at war, German U-boats in American watersTried to destroy American merchant shipsHundreds of ships lost to German subsAfter 1943, Allies able to fight back more effectivelyAllied factories at full productionLarge numbers of ships and planesMore firepower helped locate and destroy U-boatsKey German code system brokenLosses dropped sharplyVital supply line to Great Britain and Soviet Union kept openAtlantic belonged to Allies
7 How were Americans on the home front involved in the war? Find the Main IdeaHow were Americans on the home front involved in the war?Answer(s): Many factories converted to produce weapons and supplies; Americans made do with less food, fuel, and other items; people planted "victory gardens".
11 War in North Africa and Italy Italian and British forces battled for control of North Africa. The Suez Canal and the oil fields of the Middle East were essential to the British war effort. After Italian forces failed against the British, Hitler was forced to send German troops to support the Italians.Afrika Korps led by Erwin RommelPushed British back into EgyptTraded blows for two years1942—Battle of El AlameinBritish victory under Gen. Bernard MontgomeryAxis power lessened in North AfricaBack-and-forth fightingSoviets wanted European frontInvasion of western North AfricaDwight D. Eisenhower led troopsRommel caught between forces in east and westSupply problems worsenedMay 1943—surrendered to AlliesAmericans join the battleNearly 250,000 Axis soldiers taken prisoner; with surrender, all of North Africa in Allied hands
13 Fighting in Italy Next Allied goal: Italy itself July 1943, Allied soldiers landed on the island of SicilyWeak Italian resistanceBenito Mussolini forced from powerAllies capture SicilyMade plans to invade the Italian mainlandHitler tried to protect against the Allied march through ItalySeptember 1943Allies move into southern ItalyStrong German resistance as troops moved northBloody fighting continued for months
14 SummarizeWhat did Allied troops accomplish in the war in North Africa and Italy?Answer(s): They drove the Axis out of North Africa and used it as a base for launching an invasion of Europe through Italy.
15 A Turning Point in the Soviet Union 1941 German invasion halted with winterGerman equipment failed in bitter coldPoorly equipped troops suffered greatlyLeningradCitizens under siege in Hitler’s attempt to force a surrenderWinter of 1941—1942, thousands starved to death dailySiege of Leningrad cost 1 million civilian lives
16 Battle of StalingradIn the spring of 1942, Hitler ordered renewed assaults on the Soviet Union. He assembled troops from Italy, Romania, and Hungary. Even with fuel shortages, Axis forces fought well initially.Germans poised to take StalingradKey industrial city for SovietsFactories supplied Soviet armiesPorts shipped grain, oil, and other products throughout countryOn the Volga River
17 Brutal battle Final victory City bombed into rubble; German troops moved inHold city at all costsGeorgy Zhukov led Soviet counterattackAxis soldiers with no food or ammunitionHitler—“Surrender is forbidden”Brutal battleGerman officers surrendered early February 19431 million Soviet deadCrushing defeat for Hitler; once invincible German army in retreatBattle of Stalingrad turning point in warFinal victory
18 Why was the Battle of Stalingrad a turning point? SummarizeWhy was the Battle of Stalingrad a turning point?Answer(s): The German army had seemed invincible, but after failing to take Stalingrad, it was now retreating to the west.
19 A Turning Point in the Pacific The attack on Pearl Harbor was an enormous success for Japan.The damage took time to overcome; U.S. ability to strike back was limited.Three Pacific Fleet aircraft carriers undamagedAir power provided support for Allied ground and naval forcesJapanese navy still ruled the seasAllies focused on EuropeVital territory fell to JapaneseSingapore, Hong Kong, Burma, and strategic islandsTarget —U.S.-held PhilippinesU.S. general Douglas MacArthur led doomed defenseAmericans surrendered in April 1942Bataan Death MarchForced march of 70,000 American and Filipino prisonersBrutal violence, tropical heat, and lack of food or waterMany survivors perished in inhumane prison camps
20 Carrier Battles Battle of the Coral Sea Battle of Midway First carrier battle—May 1942Off northeast coast of AustraliaJapanese forces tried to take Port Moresby on island of New GuineaAllied vessels tried to block attackEach side lost a carrier in battleA Japanese advance had been stoppedBattle of the Coral SeaJune 1942—high seas battleMidway a strategic island—home to U.S. military baseJapanese advantage—more ships and carriersU.S. advantage—Japanese secret code brokenAdmiral Chester Nimitz responsible for Allied victory; Japan’s navy suffered terrible blowBattle of Midway
22 Balance of power changed Island HoppingBalance of power changedJapanese lost sea advantage after MidwayAllies developed island-hopping strategySkipped over strongholds and captured weaker targetsCaptured islands used as bases for next attacksBypassed Japanese strongholds cut off from outside suppliesAllied invasion of island late 1942Six months of brutal battleEach side won small victoriesBattle of Guadalcanal ended with Japanese troops fleeing the islandJapanese continued to fight to the deathGuadalcanalAllies captured more islandsBy 1944 back at PhilippinesLargest naval battleFirst major use of kamikazesBattle of Leyte Gulf—Allied victoryJapan’s naval power virtually destroyedLeyte Gulf
23 Find the Main IdeaHow was the Battle of Midway a turning point in the war in the Pacific?Answer(s): It changed the balance of power in the Pacific, eliminating the once great Japanese advantage on the seas, and allowing the Allies to go on the offensive.