Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Allied Response Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "The Allied Response Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Allied Response Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus
Early American Involvement Map: World War II in Europe and North Africa War in North Africa and Italy Faces of History: Dwight D. Eisenhower

2 The Allied Response Preview, continued
A Turning Point in the Soviet Union A Turning Point in the Pacific Map: War in the Pacific

3 The Allied Response Main Idea Reading Focus
The early years of World War II went poorly for the Allies. But after the United States joined the war, the Allies soon recovered and began making gains against the Axis. Reading Focus In what ways were Americans involved in the early years of the war? How did the Allies make gains in North Africa? What was the turning point in the Soviet Union? What was the turning point in the Pacific?

4 Early American Involvement The Battle of the Atlantic
Control of the ocean important Food and equipment for England and Soviet Union shipped by sea Germany relied on U-boats Inflicted great damage to shipping U.S. offered military aid Provided ships and military escorts for British convoys October 1941—USS Reuben James; first U.S. Navy ship sunk by Germany

5 American Home Front U.S. entered war two months later
Enormous task of mobilization; men and women volunteered for service Factories converted; “victory gardens” planted; scrap drives and recycling to collect materials Some negative effects of patriotism Japanese Americans placed in internment camps during the war

6 Winning the Atlantic With U.S. officially at war, German U-boats in American waters Tried to destroy American merchant ships Hundreds of ships lost to German subs After 1943, Allies able to fight back more effectively Allied factories at full production Large numbers of ships and planes More firepower helped locate and destroy U-boats Key German code system broken Losses dropped sharply Vital supply line to Great Britain and Soviet Union kept open Atlantic belonged to Allies

7 How were Americans on the home front involved in the war?
Find the Main Idea How were Americans on the home front involved in the war? Answer(s): Many factories converted to produce weapons and supplies; Americans made do with less food, fuel, and other items; people planted "victory gardens".




11 War in North Africa and Italy
Italian and British forces battled for control of North Africa. The Suez Canal and the oil fields of the Middle East were essential to the British war effort. After Italian forces failed against the British, Hitler was forced to send German troops to support the Italians. Afrika Korps led by Erwin Rommel Pushed British back into Egypt Traded blows for two years 1942—Battle of El Alamein British victory under Gen. Bernard Montgomery Axis power lessened in North Africa Back-and-forth fighting Soviets wanted European front Invasion of western North Africa Dwight D. Eisenhower led troops Rommel caught between forces in east and west Supply problems worsened May 1943—surrendered to Allies Americans join the battle Nearly 250,000 Axis soldiers taken prisoner; with surrender, all of North Africa in Allied hands


13 Fighting in Italy Next Allied goal: Italy itself
July 1943, Allied soldiers landed on the island of Sicily Weak Italian resistance Benito Mussolini forced from power Allies capture Sicily Made plans to invade the Italian mainland Hitler tried to protect against the Allied march through Italy September 1943 Allies move into southern Italy Strong German resistance as troops moved north Bloody fighting continued for months

14 Summarize What did Allied troops accomplish in the war in North Africa and Italy? Answer(s): They drove the Axis out of North Africa and used it as a base for launching an invasion of Europe through Italy.

15 A Turning Point in the Soviet Union
1941 German invasion halted with winter German equipment failed in bitter cold Poorly equipped troops suffered greatly Leningrad Citizens under siege in Hitler’s attempt to force a surrender Winter of 1941—1942, thousands starved to death daily Siege of Leningrad cost 1 million civilian lives

16 Battle of Stalingrad In the spring of 1942, Hitler ordered renewed assaults on the Soviet Union. He assembled troops from Italy, Romania, and Hungary. Even with fuel shortages, Axis forces fought well initially. Germans poised to take Stalingrad Key industrial city for Soviets Factories supplied Soviet armies Ports shipped grain, oil, and other products throughout country On the Volga River

17 Brutal battle Final victory
City bombed into rubble; German troops moved in Hold city at all costs Georgy Zhukov led Soviet counterattack Axis soldiers with no food or ammunition Hitler—“Surrender is forbidden” Brutal battle German officers surrendered early February 1943 1 million Soviet dead Crushing defeat for Hitler; once invincible German army in retreat Battle of Stalingrad turning point in war Final victory

18 Why was the Battle of Stalingrad a turning point?
Summarize Why was the Battle of Stalingrad a turning point? Answer(s): The German army had seemed invincible, but after failing to take Stalingrad, it was now retreating to the west.

19 A Turning Point in the Pacific
The attack on Pearl Harbor was an enormous success for Japan. The damage took time to overcome; U.S. ability to strike back was limited. Three Pacific Fleet aircraft carriers undamaged Air power provided support for Allied ground and naval forces Japanese navy still ruled the seas Allies focused on Europe Vital territory fell to Japanese Singapore, Hong Kong, Burma, and strategic islands Target —U.S.-held Philippines U.S. general Douglas MacArthur led doomed defense Americans surrendered in April 1942 Bataan Death March Forced march of 70,000 American and Filipino prisoners Brutal violence, tropical heat, and lack of food or water Many survivors perished in inhumane prison camps

20 Carrier Battles Battle of the Coral Sea Battle of Midway
First carrier battle—May 1942 Off northeast coast of Australia Japanese forces tried to take Port Moresby on island of New Guinea Allied vessels tried to block attack Each side lost a carrier in battle A Japanese advance had been stopped Battle of the Coral Sea June 1942—high seas battle Midway a strategic island—home to U.S. military base Japanese advantage—more ships and carriers U.S. advantage—Japanese secret code broken Admiral Chester Nimitz responsible for Allied victory; Japan’s navy suffered terrible blow Battle of Midway


22 Balance of power changed
Island Hopping Balance of power changed Japanese lost sea advantage after Midway Allies developed island-hopping strategy Skipped over strongholds and captured weaker targets Captured islands used as bases for next attacks Bypassed Japanese strongholds cut off from outside supplies Allied invasion of island late 1942 Six months of brutal battle Each side won small victories Battle of Guadalcanal ended with Japanese troops fleeing the island Japanese continued to fight to the death Guadalcanal Allies captured more islands By 1944 back at Philippines Largest naval battle First major use of kamikazes Battle of Leyte Gulf—Allied victory Japan’s naval power virtually destroyed Leyte Gulf

23 Find the Main Idea How was the Battle of Midway a turning point in the war in the Pacific? Answer(s): It changed the balance of power in the Pacific, eliminating the once great Japanese advantage on the seas, and allowing the Allies to go on the offensive.

Download ppt "The Allied Response Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google