INFORMED APPROACHES Autor: Pedro Devera Carnet: 1188508
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND: CBI refers to an approach to second language teaching in which teaching is organized around the content information that students will acquire, rather than around a linguistic or other type of syllabus. CONTENT BASED INSTRUCTION CBI is grounded on the following two central principles: 1. People learn a second language more successfully when they use the language as a means of acquiring information, rather than as an end in itself. 2. Content-Based Instruction better reflects learners’ needs for learning a second language.
CONTENT BASED INSTRUCTION Theory of Language: Language is text- and discourse-based: CBI addresses the role of language as a vehicle for learning content. The focus of teaching is how meaning and information are communicated and constructed through texts and discourse. Language use draws on integrated skills: CBI views language use as involving several skills together. Language is purposeful: Language is used for specific purposes. The purpose may be academic, vocational, social, or recreational but it gives direction, shape, and ultimately meaning to discourse and texts.
Theory of Language Learning: People learn a second language when they use the language as a means of acquiring information. Learning occurs when students are presented with target language materials in a meaningful, contextualized form with the primary focus on acquiring information. CONTENT BASED INSTRUCTION Practical Applications: _ LSP. _ Foreign language immersion programs. _ Vocational and workplace instructional contexts. _ University-level foreign language instruction. _ Bilingual education.
CBI PROS: _ There is strong empirical support for CBI. _ CBI stimulates students to think and learn through the use of the target language. _ CBI integrates teaching of the four traditional language skills. _ CBI employs authentic reading materials. CONTENT BASED INSTRUCTION CBI CONS: _ CBI demands well-trained teachers. _ CBI teaching materials may be expensive. Materials must be adapted for low-proficient students. _ CBI applicability in Venezuelan public high-school education is an uphill task.
Personal Opinion: CBI is an empirically based approach that draws upon the principles of Communicative Language Teaching and seems to be suited for academic literacy. As a matter of fact, all of the courses offered in this post- grade reflect several CBI principles. CONTENT BASED INSTRUCTION References: Richards, J., & Rodgers, T. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, second edition. United Kingdom, UK. Cambridge University Press.
TASK BASED INSTRUCTION THEORETICAL BACKGROUND: an approach based on the use of tasks as the core unit of planning and instruction in language teaching. It is a logical development of Communicative Language Teaching. Activities that involve real communication are essential for language learning. Activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks promote learning.
TASK BASED INSTRUCTION Theory of Language: _ Language is primarily a means of making meaning. _ Multiple models of language inform TBI: task-based instruction draws on structural, functional, and interactional models of language. _ Lexical units are central in language use and language learning: Vocabulary is here used to include the consideration of lexical phrases, sentence stems, prefabricated routines, and collocations, and not only words as significant units of linguistic lexical analysis and language pedagogy. Conversation is the central focus and the keystone of language acquisition.
TASK BASED INSTRUCTION Theory of Language Learning: Tasks provide both the input and output processing necessary for language acquisition. Task activity and achievement are motivational: this is because they require the learners to use authentic language. Learning difficulty can be negotiated and fine-tuned for particular pedagogical purposes: specific tasks can be designed to facilitate the use and learning of particular aspects of language.
TASK BASED INSTRUCTION Practical Applications: Language for Specific Purposes. Foreign Language Education. Academic Literacy.
TBI is more student- centered, allows for more meaningful communication, and often provides for practical extra-linguistic skill building. The risk that students will stay within the narrow confines of familiar words and forms. Some students can "hide" and rely on others to do the bulk of the work and learning. Difficulty of implementing task-based teaching where classes are large and space limited and/or inflexible. TASK BASED INSTRUCTION PROS CONS
TASK BASED INSTRUCTION Personal Opinion: TBI is an approach that may be used in Venezuelan public high- schools because it might match the administrative evaluation system (three terms a year, each divided in 70% and 30% of a total grade). In this way, it may promote learning and increase motivation in students while at the same time; it remains within the public high-schools administrative constraints.
TASK BASED INSTRUCTION REFERENCE Richards, J., & Rodgers, T. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, second edition. United Kingdom, UK. Cambridge University Press.