Presentation on theme: "Warm-up Did we keep the Articles of Confederation? Why or why not?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Warm-up Did we keep the Articles of Confederation? Why or why not? Did we create a strong central government? Why? What powers does the central government have?Did we establish a leader? Did we call him king? What did we call him? What if he gets too powerful? What can the leader do? How do we make sure he isn’t tyrranical?
2 Constitutional Convention & the 3 branches of government
3 The Philadelphia Convention The Constitutional Convention (May-Sept. 1787)Purpose: Meeting to fix the Articles of ConfederationHow Conducted: 12 States represented (55 delegates) Rhode Island refusedLeader: George Washington elected president of the conventionJohn Adams, Ben Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison all present (no Jefferson)
5 James Madison After short debate, delegates agree to scrap the AOC “The Father of the Constitution”Primary writer
6 Problems at Convention RepresentationSlaveryExecutive BranchTradeChecks and Balances/Separation of Powers
7 Constitutional Compromises Representation*Virginia Plan – Representation based on population*Bicameral -- 2 house legislative branch* “Big State Plan” – unfair to small states* New Jersey Plan – Equal representation* Unicameral – 1 house legislative branch* “Small State Plan” – unfair to large population states
8 The Great CompromiseThe “Connecticut” Compromise, written by Roger Sherman of ConnecticutStructure: Bicameral legislature (2 houses)One house based on population (House of Reps)One house based on equal representation (Senate)
14 Electoral College Would we have a president? How do we pick the president?Executive Branch*Electoral College – our method for electing a president
15 Ratification (Passage) 9/13 states must ratify to passDE, NJ, GA, CT 1st to adoptPA 1st Large StateMA, MD, SC, NHJune 21, 1788 – Constitution is officially adopted*NY, VA, RI, NC adopt because they have no choice!
16 Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists 1st 2 political partiesFederalists – supported the new ConstitutionAlexander Hamilton, James Madison, John JayWrite Essays under penname Publius (Federalist Papers)Argue for the new constitutionAnti-Federalists – wanted more protections for individual rights (AKA Democrat-Republicans)Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, Richard Henry LeeWrite papers known as the Anti-Federalist PapersArgue for individual rights
19 The Bill of Rights (1791) – Washington’s Major Accomplishment 1. RAPPSFreedom of Religion, Assembly, Press, Petition, Speech2. Right to Bear Arms3. No Quartering of Soldiers4. No illegal Search and Seizure5. No Double Jeopardy, Self Incrimination, Eminent Domain, etc…6. Speedy Public Trial, Lawyer7. Trial by Jury8. No Cruel/Unusual Punishment or Excessive Bail or Fines9. Constitution is not a limited document10. Reserved Powers
20 The Three Branches of Government Picture courtesy of
21 Back to philosophy Montesquieu: “Spirit of the Laws” Believed that there are 3 types of gov’t:Republic (democratic or aristocratic), Monarchy, and Despotism (dictator)That is order to have the best gov’t, power should be separated within gov’t
22 Introduction U.S. Constitution divides powers among three branches “Separation of Powers”Why was this done?
23 Separation of Powers Limits government powers Prevents any one branch from having too much power
24 Three Branches of Government Legislative BranchExecutive BranchJudicial BranchWhat does each branch do?
25 Three Branches of Government Legislative Branch – makes the nation’s lawsExecutive Branch – carries out the lawsJudicial Branch – interprets the laws
26 3 Branches of Government ExecutiveBranchLegislativeJudicialCongressPresident &Vice PresidentSupreme CourtAdvisors &AppointeesSenateHouse ofRepresentativesFederal CourtSystem
27 Legislative Branch Article 1 of the Constitution Congress – law-making branchTwo housesSenateHouse of Representatives
33 Checks & Balances Each branch has its own powers Yet, no branch can become too powerfulHow does the Constitution balance the powers?
34 Checks & BalancesEach branch has powers to check, or limit, the powers of the other 2 branches
35 How does this work? Congress has power to make laws President has power to veto, or turn down, proposed lawsPresident can check power of Congress
36 Can Congress check the President’s power? Congress can override, or pass a law over President’s veto2/3 majority vote in both houses needed
37 Is the Supreme Court involved in law-making? Supreme Court can check the powers of Congress and the PresidentInterprets lawsDetermines if laws are constitutional
38 Wrap-up What are the three branches of government? What are the primary responsibilities of each?Why does the U.S. Constitution provide for a separation of powers?How does the system of checks and balances work?
39 Homework:Think of 3-5 things you would add, remove, or change in the U.S. Constitution. Nothing needs to be turned in yet, just reflect on what you think needs to be addressed and come in tomorrow with some ideas.