Presentation on theme: "Constitutional Convention"— Presentation transcript:
1 Constitutional Convention MembersPrinciplesAgreements and Compromises
2 Members White 55 delegates Males Statesmen, lawyers, planters. bankers, businessmenMost under age 50ABSENT from the ConventionJohn Adams- ambassador to EnglandThomas Jefferson- ambassador to FrancePatrick Henry- “smelled a rat”Sam Adams- not chosen by state to be part of the delegation
3 Famous Members Alexander Hamilton- leader of strong government George Washington- chairman of the conventionJames Madison- ‘father of the Constitution’Benjamin Franklin- oldest member at 81 was also at the 2nd Continental Congress
5 Agreements and Compromises All agreed that rights to property should be protected.Ben Franklin proposed universal suffrage for all males, but most wanted only those with land to voteMost delegates favored a bicameral legislature
6 Agreements and Compromises Virginia Plan- favored by large statesProposed by Edmund RandolphWritten by James MadisonEndorsed by Alexander HamiltonWanted Government with a bicameral legislatureLarge house elected by popular voteSmaller house chosen by larger house members from nominees chosen by state legislaturesNumber of Representatives based on wealth
7 Agreements and Compromises New Jersey Plan- favored by small statesProposed by William PatersonUnicameral houseEach state one voteDid not require a strong central government
8 The Great Compromise Aka: Connecticut Compromise Bicameral house- benefit all statesOne house called Senate (Small states happy)Members chosen by the state legislaturesEach state gets one voteOne house called House of Representatives(Lg. States)Members chosen by populationNumber of members based on population
10 Agreements and Compromises Three-fifths clausefavors Southern statesAll slaves would be counted in the census for representation in the House as 3/5ths of a man
11 Agreements and Compromises Electoral CollegePeople chosen by the state legislaturesVote for president and vice-presidentSupposed to reflect the will of the people
12 Agreements and Compromises Amendment compromise2/3 vote of each house of Congress and ratified by ¾ of the state legislatures2/3 vote of both houses and ratified by state conventions of ¾ of the states (used 21st amendment)
14 General Contents of the Articles of the Constitution Provides organized structure of how the government is supposed to workPREAMBLE – States the purposes of governmentArticle 1: Legislative BranchArticle 2: Executive BranchArticle 3: Judicial BranchArticle 4: Relations among the StatesArticle 5: Amending ProcessArticle 6: National SupremacyArticle 7: Ratification of the Constitution
15 LEGISLATIVE BRANCH – makes laws CONGRESS HOUSE of REPRESENTATIVES435 membersBased On PopulationTERM LEVEL – 2 yearsSENATE100 members2 per stateEach state has equal representationTERM LEVEL – 6 yearsEach member serves on committees
16 EXECUTIVE BRANCH Enforces Laws PRESIDENTTERM LEVEL – 4 yearsVICE PRESIDENTPresident of the SenateTERM LEVEL – 4 years15 Executive Departments (Cabinet)Each headed by a “Secretary”Independent Agencies (NASA, Post Office, FDA, CDC, etc)
17 JUDICIAL BRANCH– interprets laws SUPREME COURT9 JusticesTERM LEVEL – Life termsCOURT of APPEALSAppeal CourtsDISTRICT COURTSTrial Courts
18 The Bill of Rights The First 10 Amendments to the Constitution Take notes on the slides as they appear.
19 1st AmendmentThe 1st Amendment guarantees freedom of religion, speech, the press, assembly, and petition.This means that we all have the right to:practice any religion we want toto speak freelyto assemble (meet)to address the government (petition)to publish newspapers, TV, radio, Internet (press)
20 1st Amendment Personal Freedoms (Speech, religion, press, assemble)
21 2nd AmendmentThe 2nd Amendment protects the right to bear arms, which means the right to own a gun.
22 3rd AmendmentThe 3rd Amendment says “No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.”This means that we cannot be forced to house or quarter soldiers.
23 4th AmendmentThe 4th Amendment protects the people from unreasonable searches and seizures.This means that the police must have a warrant to enter our homes. It also means the government cannot take our property, papers, or us, without a valid warrant based on probable cause (good reason).
26 5th AmendmentThe 5th Amendment protects people from being held for committing a crime unless they are properly indicted, (accused)You may not be tried twice for the same crime (double jeopardy)You don’t have to testify against yourself in court. (Self-incrimination)
27 6th AmendmentThe 6th Amendment guarantees a speedy trial (you can’t be kept in jail for over a year without a trial)an impartial jury (doesn’t already think you are guilty)that the accused can confront witnesses against themthe accused must be allowed to have a lawyer
28 7th AmendmentThe 7th Amendment guarantees the right to a speedy civil trial.A civil trial differs from a criminal trial. A civil trial is when someone sues someone else. A criminal trial is when the state tries to convict someone of a crime.
29 8th AmendmentThe 8th Amendment guarantees that punishments will be fair and not cruel, and that extraordinarily large fines will not be set.
30 9th AmendmentAll rights not stated in the Constitution and not forbidden by the Constitution belong to the people.This means that the states can do what they want if the Constitution does not forbid it.
31 10th AmendmentThe 10th Amendment states that any power not granted to the federal government belongs to the states or to the people.
32 FREEDOM of Religion, Press, Speech, Assembly, Petition "BILL OF RIGHTS"First 10 Amendments to the Constitution in 1791 Rights and freedoms won in the Revolution are preserved and protected…Bill of rightsFREEDOM of Religion, Press, Speech, Assembly, PetitionRIGHT TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMSNo QUARTERING of soldiers in peacetimeNO UNREASONABLE SEARCH and SEIZUREPROTECTION of ACCUSEDRIGHT TO A SPEEDY, PUBLIC TRIAL BY JURYTRIAL BY JURY IN CIVIL SUITSNO EXCESSIVE FINES or CRUEL PUNISHMENTPOWERS RESERVED TO THE PEOPLEPOWERS RESERVED TO THE STATES