Presentation on theme: "We will focus on Bullying as the example of violence"— Presentation transcript:
1 We will focus on Bullying as the example of violence Discuss the Relative Effectiveness of Two Strategies for Reducing ViolenceWe will focus on Bullying as the example of violence
2 Questions for Discussion List all possible sociocultural factors for violence.Consider ways to reduce violenceIs there any bullying at our school?
3 What is Violence?The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment or deprivation. (WHO, 2002)
4 What is Bullying?Bullying: When a person is exposed repeatedly over time to negative actions on the part of one or more people (direct or indirect)Cyber bullying: The use of information and communication technologies to support deliberate, repeated, and hostile behavior by an individual or group that is intended to harm othersHappy slapping: Using physical violence against a person while a third person videotapes the event
5 How common is it? Not only children – at workplaces too 17 % said that they had been bullied during a school yesr in the US 2001 ( Nansel et al.)Found in many countries21,9 % of students in elemantary school in Japan 2006 (Kim)Olweus claims that 1 out of 10 students has been the victim of bullying in Norwegian and Swedish schools 1993
6 Strategies for reducing bullying Look in your IB Study Guide for studies (you all have one now…)MACS :Metropolitan Area Child StudyOBPP: Olweus bullying prevention programme
7 Anti-Bullying Programmes: Study 2 Olweus (1972): Developed a whole-school programme for schools in Norway. This programme uses cooperative learning, teachers are trained to recognize and deal with bullying, lunchrooms and playgrounds are supervised, and counsellors conduct therapy with bullies and their parents.The programme has reduced bullying by 50 %.Dr. Dan Olweus and the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program
8 EvaluationGeneralisability problem. Olweus’ research was only conducted in Norway, a country that already emphasizes communitarian norms. It is possible that other, less communitarian or individualistic cultures also require a change in cultural normsBlack (2007) implementation of OBPP in the USA showed mixed results.Policies and programmes may only be effective if everyone is aware of them and committed to change, including parentsResearch is qualitative, therefore there are possible researcher biases or Hawthorne effects. Research cannot measure whether the methods are effective outside of schoolConclusion: Antibullying programmes have been shown to be effective and are important at all grade levels.