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© 2005 Wiley1 Total Quality Management
© 2005 Wiley2 What is TQM? Meeting quality expectations as defined by the customer Integrated organizational effort designed to improve quality of processes at every business level
© 2005 Wiley3 Defining Quality – 5 Ways Conformance to specifications Does product/service meet targets and tolerances defined by designers? Fitness for use Evaluates performance for intended use Value for price paid Evaluation of usefulness vs. price paid Support services Quality of support after sale Psychological e.g. Ambiance, prestige, friendly staff
© 2005 Wiley4 Manufacturing Quality vs. Service Quality Manufacturing quality focuses on tangible product features Conformance, performance, reliability, features Service organizations produce intangible products that must be experienced Quality often defined by perceptional factors like courtesy, friendliness, promptness, waiting time, consistency The customer is part of the “production” process: if a defect occurs, the customer will be aware of it. Can the defect be fixed? (bangs cut too short?)
© 2005 Wiley5 Evolution of TQM – New Focus
© 2005 Wiley6 TQM Philosophy – What’s Different? Focus on Customer Identify and meet customer needs Stay tuned to changing needs, e.g. fashion styles 96% of customers do not complain (stop buying and/or tell others 9-11 people); satisfied customers 1 person Fixing the problem after the complaint customers become more loyal than if they had not had the problem in the first place It costs more to obtain a new customer than to retain one Customers increase their spending the longer they buy from a company Continuous Improvement Continuous learning and problem solving ( e.g. Kaizen, 6 sigma)
© 2005 Wiley7 TQM Philosophy – What’s Different? Quality at the Source Inspection vs. prevention & problem solving Employee Empowerment Empower all employees; external and internal customers
© 2005 Wiley8 TQM Philosophy– What’s Different? ( continued ) Understanding Quality Tools Ongoing training on analysis, assessment, and correction, & implementation tools Team Approach Teams formed around processes – 8 to 10 people Meet weekly to analyze and solve problems Benchmarking Studying practices at “best in class” companies Managing Supplier Quality Certifying suppliers vs. receiving inspection
© 2005 Wiley9 Four Dimensions of Quality Quality of design Determining which features to include in the final design Quality of conformance to design Production processes are set up to meet design specifications Ease of use Instructions, operation, maintenance, safety Post-sale service Responsiveness, rapid repair, p.m., spare parts
© 2005 Wiley10 Cost of Quality – 4 Categories Early detection/prevention is less costly May be less by a factor of 10
© 2005 Wiley11 Ways of Improving Quality Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycle (PDSA) Also called the Deming Wheel after originator Circular, never ending problem solving process Quality Function Deployment Used to translate customer preferences to design Seven Tools of Quality Control Tools typically taught to problem solving teams
© 2005 Wiley12 PDSA Details Plan Evaluate current process Collect procedures, data, identify problems Develop an improvement plan, performance objectives Do Implement the plan – trial basis Study Collect data and evaluate against objectives Act Communicate the results from trial If successful, implement new process
© 2005 Wiley13 PDSA (continued) Cycle is repeated After act phase, start planning and repeat process
© 2005 Wiley14 QFD Details Process used to ensure that the product meets customer specifications Voice of the engineer Voice of the customer Customer-based benchmarks
© 2005 Wiley15 QFD - House of Quality Adding trade-offs, targets & developing product specifications Trade-offs Targets Technical Benchmarks
© 2005 Wiley16 Seven Problem Solving Tools Cause-and-Effect Diagrams Flowcharts Checklists Control Charts Scatter Diagrams Pareto Analysis Histograms
© 2005 Wiley17 Cause-and-Effect Diagrams Called Fishbone Diagram Focused on solving identified quality problem
© 2005 Wiley18 Flowcharts Used to document the detailed steps in a process Often the first step in Process Re-Engineering
© 2005 Wiley19 Checklist Simple data check-off sheet designed to identify type of quality problems at each work station; per shift, per machine, per operator
© 2005 Wiley20 Control Charts Important tool used in Statistical Process Control – Chapter 6 The UCL and LCL are calculated limits used to show when process is in or out of control
© 2005 Wiley21 Scatter Diagrams A graph that shows how two variables are related to one another Data can be used in a regression analysis to establish equation for the relationship
© 2005 Wiley22 Pareto Analysis Technique that displays the degree of importance for each element Named after the 19 th century Italian economist Often called the Rule Principle is that quality problems are the result of only a few problems e.g. 80% of the problems caused by 20% of causes
© 2005 Wiley23 Histograms A chart that shows the frequency distribution of observed values of a variable like service time at a bank drive-up window Displays whether the distribution is symmetrical (normal) or skewed
© 2005 Wiley24 Quality Awards and Standards Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award The Deming Prize ISO 9000 Certification ISO Standards
© 2005 Wiley25 MBNQA- What Is It? Award named after the former Secretary of Commerce – Reagan Administration Intended to reward and stimulate quality initiatives Given to no more that two companies in each of three categories; manufacturing, service, and small business Past winners; FedEx, 3M, IBM, Ritz-Carlton Typical winners have scored around 700 points
© 2005 Wiley26 The Deming Prize Given by the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers since 1951 Named after W. Edwards Deming who worked to improve Japanese quality after WWII Not open to foreign companies until 1984 Florida Power & Light was first US company winner
© 2005 Wiley27 ISO Standards ISO 9000 Standards: Certification developed by International Organization for Standardization Set of internationally recognized quality standards Companies are periodically audited & certified ISO 9000:2000 Quality Management Systems (QMS) – Fundamentals and Standards ISO 9001:2000 QMS – Requirements (customer) ISO 9004:2000 QMS - Guidelines for Performance More than 40,000 companies have been certified ISO 14000: Focuses on a company’s environmental responsibility
© 2005 Wiley28 ISO Standards (1) Design/Development -> (2) Procurement -> (3) Production -> (4) Installation -> (5) Servicing ISO 9001: 2000 (1) (5) ISO 9002, ISO 9003: withdrawn, incorporated into ISO 9001: 2000 ISO 10011: Guidelines for Quality Management
© 2005 Wiley29 Quality Gurus Walter A. Shewhart W. Edwards Deming Joseph M. Juran Armand V. Feigenbaum Phillip Crosby Kaoru Ishikawa Genichi Taguchi
© 2005 Wiley30 Why TQM Efforts Fail Lack of a genuine quality culture Lack of top management support and commitment Over- and under-reliance on SPC methods
© 2007 Wiley1 Chapter 5 – Total Quality Management Operations Management by R. Dan Reid & Nada R. Sanders 3 rd Edition © Wiley 2007.
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© 2005 Wiley1 Chapter 5 - Total Quality Management Operations Management by R. Dan Reid & Nada R. Sanders 2 nd Edition © Wiley 2005 PowerPoint Presentation.
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