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What is Psychology? Chapter One. WHY STUDY PSYCHOLOGY? Section One.

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Presentation on theme: "What is Psychology? Chapter One. WHY STUDY PSYCHOLOGY? Section One."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Psychology? Chapter One


3 Definition: The study of behaviors and cognitive activities Look at it like a math problem: ◦ Thoughts + Actions = Psychology

4 Goals of Psychology 1. Observe: look at what’s happening 2. Describe: explain your observations 3. Explain: why did this happen 4. Predict: what made this happen 5. Control: decide when to let it happen again Try it out!

5 Psychology is a social AND a natural science. Concerned with the nature of the physical world; conduct research Examples ◦ Biology ◦ Chemistry ◦ Physics Deals with the structure of human society and the people in society Examples ◦ History ◦ Political Science ◦ Sociology


7 All Psychologists: Are interested in behavior Believe research is important Say something is true ONLY when proven

8 Psychiatrists Are medical doctors (MDs) who have gone through medical school and simply specialized in psychiatric treatment Prescribe medications

9 Types of Psychologists Clinical: the largest group, evaluate problems through interviews and tests; treat psychological disorders Counseling: use interviews and tests; deal with adjustment problems School: identify and help students who have problems that interfere with learning Educational: focus on course planning and instructional methods

10 Developmental: study changes through a life span (physical, emotional, cognitive, and social) Personality: identify characteristics and traits Social: concerned with people’s behavior in social situations Experimental: conduct research Industrial & Organizational: focus on people and work

11 Environmental: look at how people influence and are influenced by their surroundings Consumer: explain and predict a shopper’s behavior Forensic: work with the criminal justice system Health: look at how mental processes and behavior are related to one’s health

12 Sections 1 and 2 Review Use the books from 2004; answer on a half sheet of paper Answer #1 on page 6 Answer #3 on page 11 Answer #1 on page 22 (Understanding Main Ideas) Write a one paragraph response to the video—include the purpose of a forensic psychologist and your opinion of the one in our video.


14 Ancient Greece A quick video on why this part is important! A quick video on why this part is important! Socrates and Plato (400 BC – 350 BC) ◦ Motto: know thyself ◦ Introspection~ looking within Hippocrates (400 BC) ◦ Ancient physician ◦ Believed confusion and madness were caused by brain abnormalities

15 Middle Ages Any problems meant a person was possessed

16 Modern Science Modern psychology began in the 1800s ◦ Became a lab science in 1879 William Wundt / Structuralism ◦ Conscious experiences are stressed ◦ Looks at both objective (sights and sounds) and subjective (feelings and thoughts)

17 William James / Functionalism ◦ How thoughts help us adapt ◦ Successful actions are repeated and eventually become habits John Watson / Behaviorism ◦ Observable behavior only

18 BF Skinner / Reinforcement ◦ Rewarded behaviors will be repeated Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang Kohler / Gestalt ◦ Perceptions of an item are more than the sum of its parts

19 Sigmund Freud / Psychoanalysis ◦ Emphasizes unconscious motives and internal conflicts ◦ Id = basic drives ◦ Ego = reality principle ◦ Superego = moral principle Biography Part Two Part Three


21 Something described as contemporary is new A perspective is a view of a topic We’re going to make a visual aid to help us remember these. Begin by tracing your hand on a piece of paper.

22 Biological: the influence of our bodies on our behavior; especially focus on the brain ◦ This is your pinky finger—just like the cartoon Pinky and the Brain! Cognitive: emphasizes one’s thoughts in determining behavior; looks at the various ways we process information ◦ When we’re thinking, sometimes we point to our temple, so this is your pointer finger.

23 Humanistic: stresses our capacity for self- awareness and self-fulfillment; we “invent” ourselves ◦ Place your hand, palm down, on the desk. Lift all your fingers. It’s most difficult to lift our ring finger. This reflects we’re all human, and have to work hard to reach our potential.

24 Psychoanalytic: our unconscious influences behavior; focus on conscious choice and self direction ◦ This is our thumb. If you point your thumb behind you, it’s towards your past experiences. Learning: the effect of experience on behavior ◦ How do we know what the middle finger means? We learned it!

25 Socio-cultural: includes issues of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socio-economic background ◦ If we stretched out our arms and gave ourselves a big hug, we are accepting our differences. This is represented by our palm. Evolutionary: organisms survive and transmit adaptive genes to future generations ◦ Draw a 6 th finger to represent future changes.

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