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© 2008 Prentice Hall8-1 Introduction to Project Management Chapter 8 Managing Project Quality Information Systems Project Management: A Process and Team Approach, 1e Fuller/Valacich/George
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-2 Quality According to PMBOK, project quality is defined as “the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements.”
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-3 Importance of Quality Determined by industry or tolerance for error Critical: health or safety related
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-4 Quality Within Project Management Required in all stages –Initiation and closure Goals and level of achievement (lessons learned) –Planning Determine ways to control quality –Execution and control Feedback mechanisms to monitor and adjust
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-5 Quality Can Be Applied To: –The project team Sets performance expectations –Processes Identifies ways to control quality –Success level Allows team to determine the level of quality attainment
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-6 Pioneers in Quality Management Deming –http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._Edwards_Deminghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._Edwards_Deming –Deming offered fourteen key principles for management for transforming business effectiveness. In summary: 1.) Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of a product and service with a plan to become competitive and stay in business. Decide to whom top management is responsible. 2.) Adopt the new philosophy. We are in a new economic age. We can no longer live with commonly accepted levels of delays, mistakes, defective materials, and defective workmanship. 3.) Cease dependence on mass inspection. Require, instead, statistical evidence that quality is built in. (prevent defects instead of detect defects.) 4.) End of the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, depend on meaningful measures of quality along with price. Eliminate suppliers that cannot qualify with statistical evidence of quality.
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-7 Pioneers in Quality Management 5.) Find Problems. It is a management’s job to work continually on the system (design, incoming materials, composition of material, maintenance, improvement of machine, training, supervision, retraining) 6.) Institute modern methods of training on the job 7.) The responsibility of the foreman must be to change from sheer numbers to quality… [which] will automatically improve productivity. Management must prepare to take immediate action on reports from the foremen concerning barriers such as inherent defects, machines not maintained, poor tools, and fuzzy operational definitions. 8.) Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively for the company. 9.) Break down barriers between departments. People in research, design, sales and production must work as a team to foresee problems of production that may be encountered with various materials and specifications. 10.) Eliminate numerical goals, posters, slogans for the workforce, asking for new levels of productivity without providing methods. 11.) Eliminate work standards that prescribe numerical quotas. 12.) Remove barriers that stand between the hourly worker and his right of pride of workmanship. 13.) Institute a vigorous program of education and retraining. 14.) Create a structure in top management that will push every day on the above 13pts.
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-8 Pioneers in Quality Management Juran –Pareto Principle (80/20 rule) –http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juranhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juran “ 80% of a problem is caused by 20% of the causes). This is also known as the "vital few and the trivial many". In later years Juran has preferred "the vital few and the useful many" to signal that the remaining 80% of the causes should not be totally ignored.”
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-9 Crosby: Four Absolutes of Quality Management
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-10 Balanced Scorecard Developed by Kaplan & Norton 4 views of organizational activity –Learning and Growth –Business Process –Customer –Financial http://www.balancedscorecard.org/basics/bsc1. html
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-11 Quality Standards ISO9000 –Quality management focus Customer quality requirements Regulatory requirements Enhance customer satisfaction Continual improvement – www.iso.orgwww.iso.org Six Sigma –To achieve Six Sigma, a process must not produce more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities –Champion, Master Black Belt, Black Belt, Green Belt proficiency designations
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-12 Certificates/Awards Total Quality Management (TQM) –A description of the culture, attitude, and organization of a company that strives to provide customers with products and services that satisfy their needs –Emphasizes processes being done right the first time and defects and waste eradicated from operations
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-13 IS/IT Quality Where do you focus? How do you measure? What is the return on investment?
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-14 Quality Planning Quality planning –The process of identifying relevant quality standards and developing a plan to ensure the project meets those standards
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-15 PMBOK Project Quality Management Inputs, Tools, and Outputs
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-16 PMBOK Required Inputs, Tools and Techniques Used, and Resulting Outputs During Quality Planning
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-17 Quality Planning – Inputs Enterprise factors –Government regulations –Standards or rules specific to organization’s product or service Organizational process assets –Quality policies/procedures/guidelines –Lessons learned Project scope statement Project management plan
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-18 Quality Planning – Techniques Cost/benefit analysis –An evaluation of the costs and benefits of alternative approaches to a proposed activity to determine the best alternative Benchmarking –Study of a competitor’s product or business practices in order to improve the performance of one’s own company Capability Maturity Model (CMM) –Used to determine an organization’s capability with respect to best practices within a specific industry
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-19 Capability Maturity Model Quality Planning – Techniques (cont.)
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-20 Quality Planning – Techniques (cont.) Design of experiments –Application of selected statistical techniques to test the efficiency of certain project management approaches by testing factors that may influence a specific variable –http://www.isixsigma.com/library/content/c030106a.as phttp://www.isixsigma.com/library/content/c030106a.as p
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-21 Cost of quality analysis (COQ) –Cost to improve or ensure quality measures, as well as the cost associated with a lack of quality –http://www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/Cost_Of_Quality- 497.htmhttp://www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/Cost_Of_Quality- 497.htm Quality Planning – Techniques (cont.)
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-22 Types of Quality Costs
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-23 Reducing Software Quality Costs Avoiding any failure costs by driving defects to zero Investing in prevention activities to improve quality Reducing appraisal costs as quality improves Continuously evaluating and altering preventive efforts for more improvement
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-24 Quality Planning – Outputs Quality management plan –A plan specifying how quality measures will be implemented during a project Quality metrics –Operational definitions of specific, processes, events, or products, as well as an explanation of how they will be measured in terms of quality Quality checklists –Tools used to ensure that a specific set of actions has been correctly performed
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-25 Quality Planning – Outputs (cont.) Process improvement plan –A plan specifying how to identify wasteful and non- value added activities Quality baseline –The basis for which project quality is measured and reported Updates to project management plan –Incorporation of quality management plan outputs into project management plan
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-26 Quality Assurance The process of ensuring that the project meets the quality standards outlined during the quality planning phase
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-27 PMBOK Required Inputs, Tools and Techniques Used, and Resulting Outputs During Quality Assurance
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-28 Quality Assurance – Inputs Quality management plan Quality metrics Process improvement plans Work performance information Approved change requests Quality control measures Implemented –change requests –corrective actions –defect repairs –preventive actions
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-29 Quality Assurance – Tools & Techniques Quality planning tools and techniques can be applied Quality audits –Structured and independent review activities designed to review other quality management procedures and to identify potential lessons learned Process analysis –Examines how a process is performed
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-30 Quality Assurance – Outputs Requested changes Recommended corrective actions Updates to organizational process assets Updates to the project management plan
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-31 Quality Control The monitoring of project activities in order to determine if specified quality standards are being met
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-32 PMBOK Required Inputs, Tools and Techniques Used, and Resulting Outputs During Quality Control
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-33 Quality Control – Inputs Quality management plan Quality metrics Quality checklists Organizational process assets Work performance information Approved change requests Deliverables
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-34 Work Performance Information Status summaries of : –Project deliverables –Any collected performance measures –Implemented changes from the original project management plan
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-35 Quality Control – Tools & Techniques Cause and effect diagrams (Ishikawa) Control charts Pareto charts Flowcharts Histogram Run chart Scatter diagram Statistical sampling Inspection review Defect repair review
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-36 Ishikawa (fishbone) Diagram Sample
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-37 Control Chart Sample
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-38 Pareto Chart
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-39 Quality Control – Outputs Quality control measurements Validated defect repair Updates to the quality baseline Recommended correction actions Recommended preventative actions Requested changes Recommended defect repair Updates to organizational process assets Validated deliverables Updates to project management plan
© 2008 Prentice Hall8-40 Questions?
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