2 Inequalities of Gender Sexual harassmentUnwanted sexual attention or pressure from someone of greater powerPatriarchySocial arrangement where men dominate womenSexismIdeology maintaining women are inferior to men, justifying discrimination
3 Sex vs. GenderSex…the biological and anatomical differences between males and females.Primary characteristics…genitalia used in the reproductive processSecondary…the sexual characteristics that developFacial hair, breasts, voice pitch etc…Gender…the socially and culturally constructed differences between males and females found in the practices associated with femininity and masculinity.
4 Sexual OrientationSexual orientation refers to someone’s preference for relationships.Heterosexual…opposite sexHomosexual…same sexBisexual…both sexesHomosexual and bisexuals are much more likely to be labeled negatively and discriminated against.Homophobia…extreme prejudice towards those who are not heterosexual.
5 Gender roleGender role refers to the attitudes, behavior, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate each sex and learned through socialization.How does a male act?How does a female act?
6 Gender Stereotypes Men strong, rational, dominant, independent, less concerned with appearanceWomenweak, emotional, nurturing, dependent, anxious about appearance
8 In nations around the world, women are often the objects of the male gaze. How might the behavior of others influence our own perceptions of body consciousness?p. 292
9 SexismSexism refers the subordination of one sex (usually female) based on the assumed superiority of the other sex.Involves prejudice, stereotyping and discriminationMost commonly occurs in the workplaceMen can be victims of sexism as well
10 Single Mothers with Children Under 18 Between 1990 and 2004, the number of U.S. families headed by single mothers increased by about 25%.This marks a change in the roles of many women, and may indicate that “traditional” households are in decline
12 Agents of Gender Socialization Living spaceDesigns and artifacts in boys/girls roomsPlayEncouraging different roles through toysDressClothing styles affect behaviorSchoolReading materials contain gender stereotypesAdvertisingBiased images exaggerated to sell product
13 Parents, peers, and the larger society all influence our perceptions about gender-appropriate behavior.p. 299
14 Parents and Gender Socialization Children's clothing and toys reflect their parents' gender expectations.Children are often assigned household tasks according to gender.
15 Are children’s toys a reflection of their own preferences and choices Are children’s toys a reflection of their own preferences and choices? How do toys reflect gender socialization by parents and other adults?p. 298
16 Are children’s toys a reflection of their own preferences and choices Are children’s toys a reflection of their own preferences and choices? How do toys reflect gender socialization by parents and other adults?p. 298
17 Peers and Gender Socialization Peers help children learn gender-appropriate and inappropriate behavior.During adolescence, peers often are more effective at gender socialization than adults.College student peers play an important role in career choices and the establishment of long term, intimate relationships.
18 Schools and Gender Socialization Teachers provide messages about gender through classroom assignments and informal interactions with students.Teachers may unintentionally show favoritism toward one gender over the other.
19 Teachers often use competition between boys and girls because they hope to make a learning activity more interesting. Here, a middle-school girl leads other girls against boys in a Spanish translation contest. What are the advantages and disadvantages of gender-based competition in classroom settings?p. 300
20 Sports and Gender Socialization From elementary school through high school:Boys play football.Girls are cheerleaders, members of the drill team, and homecoming queens.For many males, sports is a training ground for masculinity.
21 Mass Media and Gender Socialization On television:Male characters typically are more aggressive, constructive, and direct.Females are deferential toward others or use manipulation to get their way.Stars are often idolized and may be negative role models as people feel they must live the unrealistic lifestyles portrayed on TV
22 Eating disorders are a concern across lines of race and class Eating disorders are a concern across lines of race and class. Celebrities such as Mary-Kate Olsen make us more aware of the prevalence of this problem when they announce that they are being treated for anorexia or bulimia. What societal factors may contribute to women and men feeling differently about their bodies?Fig. 10-CO, p. 287
23 In the past, cosmetic surgery was primarily performed on older people and individuals who needed reconstruction as a result of birth defects or accidents. Today, teenagers around the world are having elective surgery to become more “beautiful” or more “perfect.”p. 304
24 Adult SocializationAs men and women enter adulthood, they continue to develop gender socialization.Gender roles are carried out in the workplaceWomen’s work vs. Men’s workFamily plansSuccess relative to ageWomen are portrayed as more successful when young
25 What stereotypes are associated with men in female-oriented positions What stereotypes are associated with men in female-oriented positions? With women in male-oriented occupations? Do you think such stereotypes will change in the near future?p. 308
26 According to the human capital model, women may earn less in the labor market because of their child-rearing responsibilities. What other sociological explanations are offered for the lower wages that women receive?p. 309
27 FeminismFeminism…the belief that women and men are equal and should be valued as such.
28 Gender Inequality and Work Working womenIncreased participation of women in all aspects of labor force is a recent changeWork segregationCertain job categories (clerical and service) still dominated by womenSecond shift: still strong household obligationsIncome inequalityWomen, on average, earn less than men
29 Causes of Gender Inequality in the Workplace SexismWomen are best suited for certain jobs or should stay at homeLack of qualificationsMen have greater experienceThe Glass CeilingDifficulties for women to rise to top positionsNetworking“old boy” network excludes women
30 2010 Earn 81% of what men make (up) 46% labor force participation (down)Slower recovery for women from recession79% in health, 68% education, 43% professional/technical24% CEO’s earning 75% of men in those positions60% of low wage working force
32 Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Conflict Theory…it is to men’s advantage to prevent women from reaching their full potential, maintaining the status quo.Symbolic Interactionism…boys and girls learn gender roles through socialization.Functionalist Theory…roles of men and women are divided to benefit, and provide functions to, society.
34 The Elderly Stereotypes? What are the roles that they can/do play in society?
35 Defining AgeismAge stratification…the idea that there is unequal distribution of resources based on age (like social class).Ageism…a set of beliefs and attitudes towards the elderly that helps one justify prejudice and discrimination towards the elderly.
36 Elderly and Stereotypes SenileUnable to learn new skillsImmobileMean
37 Inequality and the Elderly Poverty for elderly is measured differently than for others.Assumption that they need lessAlthough statistics say poverty among the elderly is decreasing, it is a growing problemMany are “hidden poor”…in institutions etc…Living on fixed incomes
38 Political power of the elderly Largest turnout of any voter group.Very diverse so often do not agree on many issues.If elderly had a unifying voice, they would have the potential for “gray power.”