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Gender and Gender Roles

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Presentation on theme: "Gender and Gender Roles"— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender and Gender Roles
Chapter 5 Gender and Gender Roles

2 Sex, Gender, and Gender Roles
Sex: whether one is biologically female, male, or intersex Genetic sex: chromosomal and hormonal sex characteristics Anatomical sex: our physical sex; gonads, uterus, vulva, vagina, or penis Gender: social and cultural characteristics associated with being male or female Gender identity: gender one believes self to be 2

3 Sex and Gender Identity
Assigned gender Gender variations Gender identity Gender role 3

4 Gender-Roles Gender-role stereotype Gender-role attitude
The belief concerning what’s appropriate for male or female traits Gender-role behavior Activities or behaviors a person engages in as a female or male 4

5 Masculinity and Femininity
Sexes seen as polar opposites in traditional Western view, e.g. “opposite sex” Different qualities associated with different genders Sexism Some qualities are biologically based, some culturally based

6 Gender and Sexual Orientation
Gender, gender identity, and gender role are conceptually independent of sexual orientation Heterosexuality has been assumed to be part of masculinity and femininity

7 Gender Theory Developed in the ’80s and ’90s to explore the role of gender in society Seeks to understand society through understanding how its organized by gender Views gender as a basic element in social relationships

8 Gender Theory in Psychology
How gender is created and its purposes How specific traits, behaviors, and roles are defined as male or female How gender creates advantages and disadvantages Rejects the idea that gender differences are primarily biologically-driven Operates from a social-constructivist framework

9 Theories of Socialization
Social learning theory Cognitive development theory

10 Cognitive Social Learning Theory
Emphasizes consequences as shaping gender related behavior Cognition: Mental processes such as evaluation and reflection Includes ability to use language Anticipate consequences Modeling

11 Cognitive Development Theory
Focuses on children’s active interpretation of gender After age 6 or 7, motivation to act like one’s gender is primarily internal, and that gender-role behavior is intrinsic

12 Social Construction Theory
Gender expression is an outcome of Power Language Meaning Relationship to sexual orientation Women Men

13 Gender-Role Learning: Childhood and Adolescence
Parents as socializing agents Manipulation Channeling Verbal appellation Activity exposure Connections between sons and mothers Ethnic groups

14 Gender-Role Learning: Childhood and Adolescence
Teachers as Socializing agents Females are more common Bias in presentation of topics Peers as socializing agents Play Approval Perceptions Media

15 Gender Schemas: Exaggerating Differences
Interrelated ideas help information processing Cognitive organization of world by gender Emphasize dichotomy Minimize valuing of the individual

16 Contemporary Gender Roles
Women’s roles have changed Men’s roles have changed Must include diverse groups Egalitarian approach to gender roles

17 Traditional Male Gender Role
Aggressiveness Emotional toughness Independence Feelings of superiority Decisiveness Power orientation Competitiveness Dominance Violence

18 Traditional Male Sexual Scripts: Zilbergeld
Men should not have or express certain feelings Performance is the only thing that counts The man is in charge A man always wants sex and is ready for it All physical contact leads to sex Sex equals intercourse Sexual intercourse leads to orgasm

19 Traditional Female Gender Role
American middle-class Whites: women as wives and mothers. Recently includes work outside the home African Americans: more egalitarian roles for men and women Latinas: women subordinate to men out of respect; Gender role affected by age

20 Traditional Female Sexual Scripts:
Sex is good and bad It’s not okay to touch yourself “down there” Sex is for men Men should know what women want Women shouldn’t talk about sex Women should look like models Women are nurturers: they give, men receive There is only one right way to have an orgasm

21 Changing Gender Roles Egalitarian position
Androgyny: flexibility in gender roles, combining elements of each traditional role

22 Contemporary Sexual Scripts
Sexual expression is positive Sexual activities involve a mutual exchange of erotic pleasure, and both partners are equally responsible Legitimate sexual activities are not limited to intercourse but include masturbation and oral sex Sexual activities may be initiated by either partner Both partners have a right to experience orgasm, whether through intercourse, oral sex, or manual stimulation Non-marital sex is acceptable within a relationship context

23 Androgyny Unique combination or instrumental and expressive traits
Difficulties with expression and expectation

24 When Sex is Ambiguous Intersexuality Tran sexuality Transgenderism 5

25 Intersexuality Possess mixtures of male and female genitalia or reproductive physiology Known until recently as “hermaphrodites” Shrouded in secrecy by families and medical establishments in the past

26 Intersexuality Hermaphrodites: Old terminology
Ambiguous genitals: 1/2000 births Blended gonads or both gonads One ovary and one testis, or testes containing ovarian tissue

27 Chromosomal Anomalies: Turner Syndrome
Females who lack a chromosome: XO rather than XX Occurs in 1/1666 live births Female external appearance No ovaries Hormonal therapy Assisted fertility

28 Chromosomal Anomalies: Klinefelter Syndrome
Males who have extra X chromosomes: XXY, XXXY, or XXXXY rather than XY Occurs in 1/1000 live births Variable effects; many men never diagnosed. Small firm testes; some female physical traits Lower testosterone levels

29 Hormonal Disorders: Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome
Inherited condition occurring in 1/13,000 individuals Genetic males whose tissues do not respond to testosterone Female genitals, no female internal organs At puberty, develops hips and breasts, no pubic hair and no menstruation Many experience female gender identity

30 Hormonal Disorders: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
A genetic female with ovaries and a vagina develops externally as a male Due to malfunctioning of adrenal gland Occurs in 1/13,000 live births At birth, ambiguous genitalia In the past, doctors and families choose to assign female gender at birth

31 Hormonal Disorders: DHT deficiency
Internal male organs Clitoris-like penis at birth Undescended testes at birth Testes descend at puberty and penis grows Socialization

32 Hypospadias Urethral opening is not in correct location
Exists on underside of glans Occurs in 1/770 male births Repair is possible

33 Gender Identity Disorder
A strong and persistent cross-gender identification and persistent discomfort about one’s assigned sex Diagnosis not associated as hormonal or physiological Requires experience of distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning 6

34 Gender Identity Disorder
Lasting personal comfort with the gendered self Treatment is individual and multifaceted Psychotherapy Real-life experience living externally as desired gender Hormonal therapy Sex-reassignment surgery

35 Transsexuality Gender identity and sexual anatomy are not congruent
Estimated 1/50,000 people over 15 yrs May occur with heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual orientations Gender reassignment

36 Transsexual Phenomenon
Embraces possibility of numerous genders and multiple social identities Other cultures recognize more than 2 genders Paradigm shift of gender dichotomy Employment protection

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