Presentation on theme: "Dr. Stern randomly samples people on State Street who are wearing headphones or earbuds and measures how loud the volume is set. The good doctor discovers."— Presentation transcript:
1 Dr. Stern randomly samples people on State Street who are wearing headphones or earbuds and measures how loud the volume is set. The good doctor discovers that there is a negative correlation between subject age and speaker volume. Can he conclude that there is an association between these two variables?YesNo, correlation is not causationNo, there may be a confounding variable that explains the relationshipNo, he needs to replicate his research first.No, B and C are both correctA
2 Class QuestionWhat approach would be the best way to understand Britney Spears?BehavioralBiologicalSocioculturalCognitivePsychodynamicNo one approach is best
3 Class QuestionWhich of the following best summarizes your view of intelligence?Intelligence is something you are born with; you either have it or you don’t.Intelligence is like any other skill; the more effort you put in the more intelligence you will have.Entity theorist versus incremental theorist. Your view of intelligence has implications for academic success.
4 Who is considered the father of American psychology? Clark HullEdward TischnerJohn WatsonWilliam JamesB. F. SkinnerD
5 Carlos is interested in studying the drinking habits of American college students. He interviews an equal number freshman, sophomore, junior and senior students at his university. What type of sample does Carlos have?RandomStratifiedRepresentativeCross SectionalBiasedE
6 Wundt is to Structuralism as ______ is to _______. Hull: IntrospectionJames: FunctionalismWatson: ExperimentationWashburn: BehaviorismRogers: Psychoanalysis
7 A study looked at the amount of time that teenage girls spent watching soap operas and how sexually active they were. They found that there was a positive correlation between hours of TV and the amount of sexual behavior engaged in. What does this mean?It means that television had a positive effect on teen's sexual behavior.It means that teens who had more sexual behavior watched less televisionIt means that soap operas caused the girls to become more sexually active.It means that more time spent watching television was associated with increased sexual behavior.
8 Class QuestionA study by Henriques et al. (1994) examined responses to reward and punishment in depressed and nondepressed subjects, which of the following is the independent variable?a) Response accuracyb) Genderc) Payoff conditiond) Response biase) Subjects' handedness
9 Class QuestionIn a study by Henriques et al. (1994) study, it was found that depressed subjects did not change their responses to reward while nondepressed subjects did. Can we conclude that depression causes individuals to be less susceptible to the effects of reward?a) Yes, depressed subjects were less sensitive to rewardb) No, because we don't know if these depressed subjects are typical of all individuals with depressionc) Yes, because all subjects got the manipulation of reward and punishmentd) No, because we did not manipulate subjects' moodD
10 An experimenter randomly assigns boys and girls to one of two experimental conditions: one group watches Miami CSI and the other group watches American Idol. Afterwards subjects are given the opportunity to administer shocks to small singing rodents. Boys who watched CSI administered more shocks than all of the other subjects. Can we conclude that CSI made these boys more aggressive?a) Yesb) No, because gender is a confound in this studyc) No, because correlation is not causationd) No, because we don’t know what TV shows these subjects normally watche) No, because we don't know if the CSI group was more violent before the study beganA
11 In the previous study, can we conclude that boys are more susceptible to the effects of television violence than girls?YesNoA
12 Pizzagalli et al. (2005) measured the brain activity of depressed and nondepressed subjects under reward and punishment conditions. They found that depressed subjects had different patterns of brain activity during the different payoff conditions. What conclusions can we draw from this studyChanges in brain activity are not related to changes in reward or punishment for depressed subjects.That depression causes changes in the brain activity of depressed subjects during reward and punishment.That depression is associated with different patterns of brain activity during reward and punishment.We can't draw any conclusions as this is only one study.
13 Mr. McGrath has observed that the more times that a student is late to class the lower the student's gpa. Which of the following statements would be correct when he presents his findings to his students?If you want to improve your grades in school, you have to start coming to class on time.There is a positive correlation between gpa and arriving late to class. You're much more likely to have a low gpa if you are regularly late to class.There is a negative correlation between gpa and arriving late to class.Because coming late to class does not make your gpa go down, we can't make any conclusions about these two variables.If you don’t start coming to class on time, your grades will not improve.
14 When a nerve cell is in an unactivated state, it has a slight negative charge. This is referred to as a(n)action potentialpolarized potentialsteady state potentialgraded potentialresting potentialE
15 Dr. Stern randomly samples people at the Farmers’ Market who are wearing headphones or earbuds and measures how loud the volume is set. He finds that older adults listen to music at a significantly lower volume than do younger adults. Can he conclude that increasing age causes adults to lower the volume of their mp3 players?YesNo, correlation is not causationNo, there may be a confounding variable that explains the relationshipB and C are both correctD
16 An antagonist is a chemical that inhibits neuronal communication An antagonist is a chemical that inhibits neuronal communication. Which of the following would have an antagonistic effect?Blocking reuptake of neurotransmitter.Deactivation of enzymes in the synapse.Stimulating postsynaptic receptors.Causing synaptic vesicles to leak neurotransmitter.All of the above.D
17 Your Aunt Edith has Parkinson's Disease, a movement disorder Your Aunt Edith has Parkinson's Disease, a movement disorder. Based on your knowledge of the brain, which neurotransmitter system is impaired?endogenous cannabinoidsdopamineendorphinsacetylcholineserotonin
18 If a disorder destroys myelin, what effect would this have on the brain? The brain tissue would collapse on itself without support.Signals between the brain and the body would be slowed down.Signals between different parts of the brain would be slowed down.Signals between different parts of the brain would be speeded up.There would be no effect on the brain, but the internal organs would slowly stop functioning.
19 Why are students in Intro Psych offered the option of earning extra credit points by taking extra credit quizzes?It is part of the standard informed consent procedure.So that they can be properly debriefed.To ensure that they do not feel forced into participating in extra credit experiments.To protect students from harm.So that potential subjects can do an appropriate risk-benefit analysis regarding their extra credit participation.EthicsInformed ConsentFreedom from coercionProtection from harmRisk-benefit analysisDebriefing
20 Suzy loves to take Ecstasy, however, the neurotoxic effects of this drug have damaged her amygdala. Given what you know about the amygdala, what sort of difficulties would you expect Suzy to have?She would have problems organizing and planning her projects at work.Susy should have difficulties identifying people's faces (prosopagnosia).She will probably not be afraid when she finds a grizzly bear in her closet.She will be unable to be classically conditioned, i.e., you'll never her get her to salivate to a little bell.She will be unable to be operantly conditioned, i.e., you'll never get her to learn that she shouldn't sit on a burning chair.C
21 Which of the following statements about the hypothalamus is NOT true? It is part of the limbic system.It is a major gland in the endocrine system.It communicates with the pituitary gland to release hormones.It is located beneath the thalamus.It is involved in such functions as eating, temperature regulation, and sexual behavior.B
22 The primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain is GlutamateNeurontinSerotoninGABADopamineD
23 Which of the following patterns of brain electrical activity characterize REM sleep? beta activityalpha wavesk complexesdelta wavessleep spindles
24 Are there any changes to the patterning of sleep across the night? No, we continue to go through all sleep stages for roughly the same amount of timeYes, the amount of REM sleep in each cycle decreases while the amount of Deep Sleep increasesYes, the amount of Stage 1 & 2 sleep decreases across the night while the amount of REM and Deep Sleep increaseYes, the amount of REM sleep in each cycle increases while the amount of Deep Sleep decreasesThe amount of Deep Sleep decreases while the amount of all other sleep stages increases
25 Which of the following sleep disorders is more common in overweight men who drink alcohol? sleep apneanarcolepsynight terrorssomnambulisminsomnia
26 Which of the following supports the Hobson & McCarley explanation of dreaming? Shy Sara has a dream where she is on a rollercoaster ride with her boyfriendDesigner Devon dreams about a polar bear and realizes that a fabric made of a clear thread would have light transmitting propertiesHungover Hank sleeps through his alarm going offDrowsy Daria dreams about trying to answer an important phone call and wakes to discover that her phone is ringingMartin spends the day doing road construction and then spends more time in Stage 4 sleep that night
27 Which of the following is an effect of a dopamine (DA) agonist? Decreasing the amount of neurotransmitter in the synaptic vesicles.Blocking the postsynaptic receptors.Increasing the action of enzymes in the synapse.Blocking the reuptake of DA by the presynaptic neuron.None of the above.
28 Carlos is interested in studying the drinking habits of students at his university. He interviews a group of students who have been selected at random from the campus directory. What type of sample does Carlos have?RandomStratifiedRepresentativeCross SectionalBiased
29 Which of the following patterns of brain electrical activity characterize Stage 2 sleep? beta activityalpha wavesp complexesdelta wavessleep spindles
30 If Johnny can't feel any pain on the right side of his body, where in his brain do you think he might have a problem?limbic systemleft occipital loberight frontal cortexleft parietal regioncorpus callosum
31 Dr. H is trying to train subjects to become UW sports fans Dr. H is trying to train subjects to become UW sports fans. Whenever he shows pictures of a gopher or a hawkeye, he sounds an air horn. Besides the fact that this is probably not a smart approach, in this example, the air horn isUSURCSCR
32 Which of the following CS/UCS pairings will work best? Backward conditioning - UCS precedes the CSSimultaneous conditioning - CS and UCS presented at the same timeDelayed conditioning - CS presented at least until the UCS is presentedTrace conditioning - CS is discontinued before the UCS is presented
33 Dr. Reuben has been pairing pictures of Apple computers with ice cream sundaes for subject Simon. Now when he presents a picture of an Apple computer to Simon, Simon starts drooling. What is the drooling called in classical conditioning terms?USURCSCRD
34 Dr. Simon is training subjects to read the comics when the newspaper is first delivered. When subjects choose to read sports or news, he plays annoying music (Wesley Willis singing "Rock and Roll McDonald’s." When they read the comics, the music is stopped. Dr. Simon is using the silence aspositive reinforcementnegative reinforcementpositive punishmentnegative punishment
35 When Wei Zhu took morphine to relieve her back pain, the pain subsided and she felt waves of pleasure wash over her. Although her back no longer hurts, she uses morphine on a daily basis and drifts along in a blissed out haze. This example illustratespositive reinforcementnegative reinforcementpositive punishmentnegative punishment
36 What do you think will be the effect of having provided reinforcement to these students? Will their coloring behavior change when they are provided access to the markers?Children in the reward group will now color more.Children in the nonreward group will now color less.Children in the nonreward group will now color more.Children in the reward group will now color less.
37 When Keisha took some aspirin to relieve her back pain, the pain subsided. Now, whenever she feels such pains, she reaches for the aspirin again. This example illustratespositive reinforcementnegative reinforcementpositive punishmentnegative punishment
38 Her parents were pleased when Ruthie helped Arnold find his missing toy, so they told her she didn’t have to eat her brussel sprouts that night at dinner. This example illustratespositive reinforcementnegative reinforcementpositive punishmentnegative punishment
39 What do you think the animals in Group 3 will do on their first day after receiving a food reward? Run the maze as fast as the Group 1 animals ran on Day 2Run the maze faster than the Group 1 animals ran on Day 2, but not as fast as the Group 1 animals currently run the mazeRun the maze as fast as the Group 1 animalsRun the maze faster than the Group 1 animals
40 This process involves thinking about material that one wants to learn in a more meaningful way and associating it with other knowledge that is already stored in memory.Rote rehearsalMaintenance rehearsalEncoding rehearsalRote repetitionElaborative rehearsal
41 Craik and Lockhart developed the levels of processing theory of memory which suggests that people will be better at retrieving memories if they form more associations with the material during learning.people will be better at retrieving memories that are stored in more shallow, i.e., less deep, levels of memory.different types of memories are stored in different levels of long-term memory.implicit memories involve more active processing than explicit memories.explicit memories involve more active processing than implicit memories.
42 Baddeley's model of working memory consists of the following: sensory memory, short-term memory, long- term memory.explicit memory, implicit memory, immediate memory.episodic memory, procedural memory, semantic memory.articulatory loop, visuospatial scratchpad, central executive.declarative memory, nondeclarative memory, flashbulb memory.
43 Tom's wife sends him to the market for milk, butter, carrots, bread, chips, and peanut butter. According to the primacy effect which item will Tom most likely remember to purchase?BeerMilkBreadPeanut butterWhatever he sees when he first walks into the store.
44 Peter drinks seven pots of espresso while studying for his psychology exam. According to the theory of encoding specificity, Peter would do best on his exam if he could take itwhile he was in a good mood.after a restful night's sleep.after having a large dose of caffeine.before he finally goes to sleep after studying.none of the above.
45 If you believe that studying in the classroom where you take your test will help you do well on the tests, you are attempting to facilitate retention on the basis offlashbulb memory.state dependent memory.context dependent memory.elaborative memory.retrieval memory.
46 implicit; classical conditioning implicit; habits implicit; priming The famous case of "H.M." pertains to an individual who had severe memory loss once his hippocampus was removed. However, he still had a form of ________ memory due to _______ as shown in his hesitant reaction to shake hands with a doctor who has pricked him with a pin the day before.implicit; classical conditioningimplicit; habitsimplicit; primingexplicit; classical conditioningexplicit; operant conditioning
47 Because it is so hot, you have opened your apartment window, but now the wind is blowing all your papers off your desk. You have a stick of chewing gum, a pound of mushrooms, and a woman's high heeled shoe. Which of these, if any, can you use to solve your problem without closing the window?stick of gumpound of mushroomshigh heeled shoeall of the aboveNone of the above
48 It is equally likely that Jack is an engineer or a lawyer. Psychologists have interviewed 30 engineers and 70 lawyers. Jack is a 45-year-old married man with four children. He's generally conservative, careful, and ambitious. He shows no interest in political and social issues. He spends most is free time on home carpentry, sailing, and mathematical puzzles. Which is more likely?Jack is an engineer.Jack is a lawyer.It is equally likely that Jack is an engineer or a lawyer.Representative heuristic
49 Linda is thirty-one years old, single, outspoken, and very bright Linda is thirty-one years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in antiwar demonstrations. Which of the following is more likely?Linda is a bank teller.Linda is a feminist bank teller.Both are equally likelyConjunction fallacy
50 In the English language, are there more words that start with the letter k or more words that have k as the third letter?More words that have K as the first letter.More words that have K as the third letter.Availabiltity heuristic
51 Do you consider yourself to be a better than average driver, an average driver, or a worse than average driver?better than average driveraverage driverworse than average driverAvailability heuristic
52 A contagious disease has been detected A contagious disease has been detected. If you do nothing 600 people will die. Which of the following would you choose to do?Adopt Plan A and save 200 livesAdopt Plan B and take a 33% chance that you will save all 600 and have a 67% chance that you'll save no oneDo nothing and save no oneFraming effects
53 A contagious disease has been detected A contagious disease has been detected. If you do nothing 600 people will die. Which of the following would you choose to do?Adopt Plan C and 400 people will die.Adopt Plan D and take a 33% chance that no one will die and have a 67% chance that all will die.Do nothing and everyone diesFraming effects
54 Which would you prefer to buy? Ground beef that is 70% leanGround beef that is 30% fatFraming effects
55 Given the choice, which condom would you choose to protect yourself from sexually transmitted diseases (STD's)?A brand that has a 95% success rate in preventing STD's.A brand that has a 5% failure rate in the prevention of STD's.Framing effects
56 We can't know because we don't know about her same age peers. Dorothy Ann is 6 years old, and she knows as much as the average 9 year old. According to William Stern, what is Dorothy Ann's intelligence score?967130150We can't know because we don't know about her same age peers.
57 If you take an intelligence test that is reliable, this means that your score should be similar each time you take the testyour score on the test will not change when a different evaluator administers the test to youif you take an alternate version of the test, your score will be unchangedall of the above
58 Statisticians like normal curves because they know the precisely the area under different segments of the curve. For instance, they know that in a normal distribution approximately ___ of the scores fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean.33%50%66%74%95%C
59 semantic memory. episodic memory. declarative memory. explicit memory. When he was younger, Antonio received an outstanding citizen award for rescuing three people from a burning building. Although over 20 years have passed, his memory for that occasion is as vivd and detailed as if he is still standing on that platform, hearing the mayor speak his name, and seeing the crowd of cheering people. Antonio's memory would be described as a(n)semantic memory.episodic memory.declarative memory.explicit memory.flashbulb memoryChoose the most precise answer
60 Poverty Alcohol Nicotine Cocaine Caffeine Which of the following teratogens is associated with premature birth, mental retardation, lower birth weight, and facial and limb abnormalities?PovertyAlcoholNicotineCocaineCaffeine
61 Society has a responsibility, both morally and fiscally, to protect the health of unborn children. As such, pregnant women who are drinking, smoking or using drugs should be prevented from doing so until after the child is born.A. YesB. No
62 Society has a responsibility, both morally and fiscally, to protect the health of unborn children. As such, we should provide money, food, and medical care to poor women until after the child is born.A. YesB. No
63 Lack of object permanence is the hallmark of which stage of Piagetian development? sensorimotorconcrete operationalpreoperationalformal operational
64 In contrast to Piaget, Vygotsky emphasized the role of ______ during development. physiological changeslearned responsesindividual differencessocial interactionsthe child's representations of the world
65 sensorimotor Conventional concrete operational preoperational Thomas tells his mom that she should only cut his sandwich into two pieces and not four because he’s not very hungry today. Thomas is likely in which stage of Piagetian development?sensorimotorConventionalconcrete operationalpreoperationalformal operational
66 What type of parenting style is characterized by firm limits, communication, and warmth? PermissiveNeglectfulAuthoritarianNurturingAuthoritative
67 Tyrone was helping his sister make lunch when he knocked the jelly jar on the floor. Tyrone's sister thinks that he is being bad because the jar broke. What stage of moral development is she in?ConventionalPreconventionalOperationalPost-conventionalPreoperational
68 Matt was helping his friend Simon make lunch when he knocked the jelly jar on the floor. Simon thinks that Matt is being bad because the jar broke. What stage of moral development is he in?ConventionalPreconventionalOperationalPost-conventionalPreoperational
69 Conventional Preconventional Operational Post-conventional When asked if John was good or bad for stealing medicine for his sick wife, Phoebe said that he was bad because stealing upsets the social order and our personal desires must be subservient to the needs of the many. Kohlberg would say that Phoebe is in the following stage of moral development:ConventionalPreconventionalOperationalPost-conventionalPreoperational
70 What type of parenting style is most likely to result in children who are less successful academically withdrawn, and lacking in social skills?PermissiveNeglectfulAuthoritarianNurturingAuthoritative
71 What type of parenting style is characterized by good communication and warmth, but little or no limits?PermissiveNeglectfulAuthoritarianNurturingAuthoritative
72 Julissa was asked why she gave her brother a cookie, and she responded that Santa Claus was watching and knew who was naughty or nice. This statement indicates that she is at the following stage of moral developmentPreconventionalPreconditionalConditionalConventionalOperationalD
73 When Anthony told his mother he didn’t want to eat his vegetables, she told him to shut up and start eating or he’d get a beating. Which parenting style is Anthony’s mother demonstrating?AuthoritativeNeglectfulPermissiveDisciplinarianAuthoritarianE
74 Class QuestionThink about the last time that you felt a strong emotion. Which of the following best describes your experience?You experienced the emotion before you had the physiological reaction.You had the physiological response before you had the emotional response.You experienced the emotion and the physiological reaction at the same time.You experienced the emotional reaction, but you did not have a physiological reaction.
75 All of the following have been identified as possible biological causes of male homosexuality EXCEPT Increases in the size of the cochlear nucleusDecreased size of the anterior nucleus in the hypothalamusGenesIncreases in the size of the anterior commisureExposure of the mother’s uterus to male hormones from earlier male children
76 Drive-reduction theory Instinct theory Phoebe skipped lunch earlier today, and now she is feeling hungry. Her hunger is so unpleasant that she finds that she can’t even begin to think about studying astronomy until she finds something to eat. Phoebe's behavior reflects the ideas of which theory of motivation?Expectancy theoryHierarchy of needsArousal theoryDrive-reduction theoryInstinct theory
77 Drive-reduction theory Instinct theory Ralphie skipped lunch earlier today, and now he is feeling hungry. He starts looking for chips and cookies to reduce this unpleasant feeling he has in his stomach. Ralphie's behavior reflects the ideas of which theory of motivation?Expectancy theoryHierarchy of needsArousal theoryDrive-reduction theoryInstinct theory
78 The Cognitive Theory of emotion as elucidated by Schachter & Singer suggests that emotions occur as a consequence ofdifferent brain systems.physiological changes.independent feelings about a situation and bodily sensations.how one interprets a situation.the objective state of one's environment.
79 Which of the following best describes the experience of emotion as described by Cannon and Bard? You experienced the emotion before you had the physiological reaction.You had the physiological response before you had the emotional response.You experienced the emotion and the physiological reaction at the same time.You experienced the emotional reaction, but you did not have a physiological reaction.You experienced the physiological reaction, but you did not have a emotional reaction.
80 Jocelyn was asked why she chose to come to the University of Wisconsin to play volleyball, and she responded that the best thing about playing for Wisconsin was how the crowd got the team fired up to play their best. This is an example of which theory of motivation?Drive reduction theoryExpectancy theoryArousal theoryInstinct theoryHierarchy of needs
81 Which of the following is generally NOT considered to be a basic emotion? lovesurprisefeardisgustanger
82 Jocelyn was asked why she chose to come to the University of Wisconsin to play volleyball, and she responded that the best thing about playing for Wisconsin was the experience of playing in front of thousands of fans in the Field House. This is an example of which theory of motivation?Drive reduction theoryExpectancy theoryArousal theoryInstinct theoryHierarchy of needs
83 Jocelyn was asked why she chose to come to the University of Wisconsin to play volleyball, and she responded that the best thing about playing for Wisconsin was the way the crowds reacted when Wisconsin won a match. This is an example of which theory of motivation?Drive reduction theoryExpectancy theoryArousal theoryInstinct theoryHierarchy of needs
84 What type of parenting style is characterized by firm limits, communication, and warmth? PermissiveNeglectfulAuthoritarianNurturingAuthoritative
85 Drive-reduction theory Instinct theory Arnold skipped lunch earlier today, and now he is feeling hungry. He starts looking for candy and cookies to because he knows how tasty they are and how good he'll feel after eating. Arnold's behavior reflects the ideas of which theory of motivation?Expectancy theoryHierarchy of needsArousal theoryDrive-reduction theoryInstinct theory
86 Suzy can't stand Canadians Suzy can't stand Canadians. She tells her friends that it isn't that she hates them, but that it is the Canadian people who want to destroy our way of life with their cheap lumber and plentiful hockey players. This is why she smashes their bottles of maple syrup. What defense mechanism is at work here?sublimationreaction formationrepressionprojectiondisplacement
87 TV detective Kojak always seems to have a lollipop in his mouth TV detective Kojak always seems to have a lollipop in his mouth. Freud would speculate that the good detective had difficulty with which psychological conflict?Toilet trainingLeaving the security of home and making friendsIdentifying with his fatherWeaningGiving up his sexual attraction to his mother
88 What sort of snack food do you like most? PretzelsPotato ChipsTortilla ChipsCrackersCheese Curls
89 What best describes your personality? You are lively and energetic; you seek novelty and thrive in the world of abstract concepts.You are successful, high achiever who enjoys the rewards and trimmings of their success, both in business and in family life.A perfectionist in regards to your own actions and to the community at large, you are often distressed by the inequities and injustices of society.Contemplative and thoughtful, you base your decisions on logic rather than emotions.Formal, conscientious and always proper, you can be described with one word - integrity.
90 According to Freud, which of the following structures is the source of the psychic energy that drives the personality?idpreconsciousegosuper egolibido
91 Steven was reprimanded by his boss for sleeping in his cubicle Steven was reprimanded by his boss for sleeping in his cubicle. When Steven got home, he yelled at his kids and told them that they were grounded because their homework wasn't yet done. What defense mechanism is at work here?sublimationreaction formationrepressionprojectiondisplacement
92 Which of the following best describes the experience of emotion as described by Cannon and Bard? You experienced the emotion before you had the physiological reaction.You had the physiological response before you had the emotional response.You experienced the emotion and the physiological reaction at the same time.You experienced the emotional reaction, but you did not have a physiological reaction.You experienced the physiological reaction, but you did not have a emotional reaction.
93 Thomas is secretly titillated by pornography, but the only time he goes to the adult bookstore is when he stands outside the doorway and lectures patrons about the evils of sex. What defense mechanism is at work here?sublimationreaction formationrepressionprojectiondisplacement
94 Ralphie skipped lunch earlier today, and now he is feeling hungry Ralphie skipped lunch earlier today, and now he is feeling hungry. He starts looking for chips and cookies to reduce this unpleasant feeling he has in his stomach. Ralphie's behavior reflects the ideas of which theory of motivation?Expectancy theoryHierarchy of needsArousal theoryDrive-reduction theoryInstinct theory
95 Source traits are to ______ traits as surface traits are to _____ traits. cardinal; secondarycardinal; centralcentral; secondaryprimary; secondarycardinal; primary
96 Samantha is uncomfortable with the sexual arousal she feels when she is around sleek automobiles. Freud would find it interesting that Samantha works in a scrap yard operating the crusher that compacts old cars. What defense mechanism is at work here?sublimationreaction formationrepressionprojectiondisplacementHave students provide arguments to support choice
97 Pam is provoked to feelings of rage by her critical boyfriend, but rather than let him know how she feels, she teases and taunts her pet poodle. What defense mechanism is at work here?RegressionReaction formationDisplacementProjectionSublimationC - Displacement
98 Which of the following is not one of the personality dimensions identified by Hans Eysenck? ExtraversionNeuroticismConscientiousnessPsychoticism
99 What is the conflict that must be resolved at Erickson's first developmental stage? industry versus inferiorityintimacy versus isolationtrust versus mistrustautonomy versus shame and doubt
100 self-focused; other-focused mastery; helpless superior; inferior Lucia believes that she is in charge of her own destiny. She takes difficult classes and accepts responsibility for her successes and failures. Rowena is just the opposite. She attributes her successes to luck and her failures to misfortune or her professor's whim. Lucia has a(n) ______ locus of control and Rowena has a(n) _____ locus of control.external; internalinternal; externalself-focused; other-focusedmastery; helplesssuperior; inferior
101 All of the following are part of the "Big Five" EXCEPT ConscientiousnessExtroversionPsychoticismNeuroticismOpenness
102 Why do people develop psychological disorders? Chemical imbalancesEarly childhood experiencesEnvironmental factors, e.g., stressDistorted thought processesGenetics
103 Which theory best explains the behavior of Britney Spears? Biological mechanismsCognitiveSocio-Cultural explanationsPsychodynamicEvolutionary
104 What is the approximate percentage of the population that has a diagnosable psychological disorder at some point in their lifetime?5%15%25%35%45%
105 Which of the following psychological disorders do not have a gender difference in incidence rates? Antisocial personality disorderSchizophreniaAnxietySubstance abuseDepression
106 The development of which of the following psychiatric procedures won a Nobel Prize for Medicine? Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)Prefrontal lobotomySSRI's, e.g., ProzacAntipsychotic medication, e.g., Thorazine
107 Antianxiety medication, e.g., Valium As a result of spending a semester in this class, you have developed an irrational fear of steamrollers. What sort of treatment would be most helpful for eliminating your fear?Cognitive therapyAntianxiety medication, e.g., ValiumHumanistic client-centered psychotherapyBehavior therapyPsychoanalysis
108 Marjorie is mired in misery Marjorie is mired in misery. To make matters worse, Marjorie missed the renewal deadline on her metropolitan apartment and is now being evicted. On which axis would you note this new misfortune?IIIIIIIVV
109 Depressed Dan has a dependent personality disorder Depressed Dan has a dependent personality disorder. On which axis would Dan's doctor delineate this diagnostic information?IIIIIIIVV
110 undifferentiated catatonic disorganized paranoid residual Since Anna shows bizarre, immobile, and relentless motor behaviors as part of her schizophrenic disorder, then she probably has ________ schizophrenia.undifferentiatedcatatonicdisorganizedparanoidresidual
111 The "split" in schizophrenia involves a split between one's masculine and feminine traits and characteristics.the various brain functions.two or more inner selves.the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex.one's thoughts, actions and feelings.
112 What is the approximate percentage of the population that has a diagnosable psychological disorder each year?5%15%25%35%45%
113 What is the approximate percentage of the population that has a diagnosable psychological disorder at some point in their life?5%15%25%35%45%
114 Approximately how many Americans commit suicide each year? 300010,00030,00050,000100,000
115 Based on the work of Richard Davidson and colleagues, what sort of difference would you expect to find in the patterning of brain activity amongst individuals suffering from depression?Increased right frontal activationDecreased right posterior activationIncreased left frontal activationDecreased right frontal activationDecreased left frontal activation
116 Gururumba Koro Pibloktuk Windigo psychosis Ashanti psychosis This culturally specific psychological disorder is characterized by a craving for human flesh and a fear that you are turning into a cannibal.GururumbaKoroPibloktukWindigo psychosisAshanti psychosis
117 Your friend, Debbie Downer, is depressed Your friend, Debbie Downer, is depressed. When Debbie asks you to recommend a treatment that would be most helpful for her depression, you recommendCognitive therapy.Antidepressant medication, e.g., Prozac.Humanistic client-centered psychotherapy.Behavior therapy.Psychoanalysis.
118 Hank seems to be angry every time that you see him Hank seems to be angry every time that you see him. He's angry when you see him on State Street, angry when you run into him at the Union, he's even angry when you see him walking across campus, and this past Saturday you saw him yelling at a vendor at the Farmers' Market. You are likely to conclude that Hank has an angry personality because his behavior ishigh on distinctiveness.low on consensus.high on consistency.low on distinctiveness.high on consensus.D
119 What sort of factor would produce an increase in obedience in Milgram’s study? Experimenter in the same room with the subjectSubject has an authoritarian personalityThe learner is in a different location from the subjectThe research is conducted at a prestigous universityAll of the above
120 Jeremy is significantly underweight, but he insists that he is overweight. You often see him in the cafeteria eating several entrees and a large number of desserts. Jeremy might have an eating disorder, and you are concerned that he hasAnorexia Nervosa, restricting subtypeAnorexia Nervosa, binging/purging subtypeBulimia Nervosa, purging subtypeBulimia Nervosa, nonpurging subtypeBinge Eating disorder
121 Histrionic Personality Disorder Jenny is always worried that she might have picked up some germs from touching something unclean. As a result, she washes her hands 10 times an hour. A likely diagnosis would beHistrionic Personality DisorderObsessive Compulsive Personality disorderNarcissistic Personality DisorderAvoidant Personality DisorderObsessive Compulsive disorder
122 What does this demonstrate? The door in the face techniqueThe lowball techniqueThe foot in the door techniqueThe that's not all techniqueThe scarcity technique
123 Behavior which is _____ on distinctiveness, _____ on consensus and ____ on consistency would be most likely to be attributed to internal causes.high; high; highhigh; low; highlow; high; lowlow; low; lowlow; low; high
124 The door in the face technique. The lowball technique. You are out shopping for a stereo system, and the salesperson shows you a system that is more expensive than you had planned on buying. Before you have a chance to tell her that it costs too much, she offers to throw in five free cd's. What does this demonstrate?The door in the face technique.The lowball technique.The foot in the door technique.The that's not all techniqueThe scarcity technique
125 Class QuestionYou just took a final exam that determines a large percentage of your grade. You think that you failed the exam and it is too late to do anything to improve your grade. Which coping strategy would make you feel better?Problem focused copingemotion focused copingprimary appraisalsecondary appraisalthought suppression
126 Class QuestionWhen you observe someone in your study group exhibiting a pattern of impatient, competitive, and hostile behavior, you are likely to conclude that they are exhibitingthe residual stress pattern.a Type A personality.a phony Type B personality.the fight-or-flight syndrome.the resistance stage of the GAS.
127 Class QuestionWhat are the three characteristics that have been associated with psychological hardiness?commitment, coping, challengecommitment, control, challengecommitment, control, achievementcoping, control, achievementchallenge, coping, control