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**Chapter 2: Motion in One Dimension**

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**Displacement Change in position of an object Frame of reference**

A point against which position is measured Example: A train traveling between stations It is in motion when measured against the track. It is stationary when measured against a seat.

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**Displacement Not equal to distance traveled Scalar vs. Vector**

Distance vs. Displacement

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Displacement (x) Straight line distance from the initial position to the final position (change in position) Can be positive or negative

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**Displacement (x) What is the displacement for the objects shown?**

Answer: 70 cm Answer: -60 cm

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**Displacement Sign Conventions**

Uses a coordinate system Right (or east) ---> + Left (or west) ---> – Up (or north) ----> + Down (or south) ---> –

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**Speed vs.Velocity Scalar vs. Vector Distance vs. Displacement**

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**Speed Speed does not include direction while velocity does.**

Speed uses distance rather than displacement. In a round trip, the average velocity is zero but the average speed is not zero.

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**Average Velocity = (ΔX/Δt) = displacement/time interval**

Displacement in a given time Average Velocity = (ΔX/Δt) = displacement/time interval

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Average Velocity How would you describe the motion shown by this graph?

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**Average Velocity Describe the motion of each object. Answers**

Object 1: constant velocity to the right or upward Object 2: constant velocity of zero (at rest) Object 3: constant velocity to the left or downward

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**Instantaneous Velocity**

Velocity at a single instant of time Speedometers in cars measure instantaneous speed. Determined by finding the slope at a single point (the slope of the tangent)

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**0.98 m/s to the east Book Problems**

Heather and Matt take a 34 minute walk eastward along a straight road to a store 2.0 km away. What is their average velocity in m/s? 0.98 m/s to the east Book Problems

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**3.47 m/s to the south Book Problems**

Eugene is 75 km due south of Salem. If Joe rides from Salem to Eugene on his bike in 6.00 hr, what is his average velocity? 3.47 m/s to the south Book Problems

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**20.83 m/s to the south Book Problems**

A bus traveled south along a straight path for 3.2 h with an average velocity of 88 km/h, stopped for 20.0 minutes, then traveled south for 2.8 h with an average velocity of 75 km/h. What is the average velocity for the total trip? 20.83 m/s to the south Book Problems

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**490,000 m to the south Book Problems**

A bus traveled south along a straight path for 3.2 h with an average velocity of 88 km/h, stopped for 20.0 minutes, then traveled south for 2.8 h with an average velocity of 75 km/h. What is the displacement for the total trip? 490,000 m to the south Book Problems

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