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1 BBA 229 Training and Development By Ms S. Chan Department of Business Administration

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Presentation on theme: "1 BBA 229 Training and Development By Ms S. Chan Department of Business Administration"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 BBA 229 Training and Development By Ms S. Chan Department of Business Administration

2 2 Recommended textbooks: 1) Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 2 nd Edition, Pearson, by P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker 2) Employee Training and Development 4th edition by Raymond A.NOE, McGraw Hill

3 3 What is Training? Training – a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees’ learning of job- related competencies –Competencies – knowledge, skills or behavior critical for successful job performance The goal of training is for employees to: –master the knowledge, skill, and behaviors emphasized in training programs, and –apply them to their day-to-day activities

4 4 High-Leverage Training Linked to strategic goals and objectives Uses an instructional design process to ensure that training is effective Compares or benchmarks the company’s training programs against training programs in other companies Creates working conditions that encourage continuous learning

5 5 Continuous Learning (1 of 2) Requires employees to understand the entire work system including the relationships among: –their jobs –their work units –the entire company

6 6 Continuous Learning (2 of 2) Employees are expected to: –acquire new skills and knowledge –apply them on the job –share this information with other employees Managers take an active role: –in identifying training needs –helping to ensure that employees use training in their work

7 7 Training and Performance Emphasis on high-leverage training has been accompanied by a movement to link training to performance improvement Training is used to improve employee performance This leads to improved business results

8 8 Training and Performance: Today’s Emphasis (1 of 2) Providing educational opportunities for all employees An on-going process of performance improvement that is directly measurable –not one-time training events The need to demonstrate the benefits of training –to executives, managers, and trainees

9 9 Training and Performance: Today’s Emphasis (2 of 2) Learning as a lifelong event –senior management, training managers, and employees have ownership Training used to help attain strategic business objectives –helps companies gain a competitive advantage

10 10 Training Goals and Roles Training is a learning opportunity which: -provides employees with knowledge and skills to perform more effectively -allows employees to meet current job requirements or prepare them to meet fast changing environment in future -effectiveness of training depend on factors such as design and implementation of training, motivation and learning style of trainees learning climate in company.

11 11 Training as an Open System Training is part of an integrated system which performance is measured against criteria that tied to strategic business objectives Open System: -A business must interact with its environment. Open systems have a dynamic relationship with environment. Closed systems do. -systems depends on environment for the input that keeps the systems active. Input then transformed into outputs by system processes. Output then flows into environment and might influence future inputs into the system.

12 12 General Open Systems Model OPEN SYSTEM INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Systems External Environment

13 13 Training as a Subsystem within the Organizational System TRAINING SUBSYSTEM Organizational NeedsAnalysisKnowledge Employee NeedsDesignSkills BudgetDevelopmentAttitudes EquipmentImplementationMotivation StaffEvaluationJob Performance INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT TRAINING’S ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT MissionStrategyStructurePoliciesProcedures FinancesResourcesPeopleProductsTechnology

14 14 Outcome Evaluation Data Process Evaluation Data Development Phase Input Process Output Implementation Phase Input Process Output Evaluation Phase Input Process Output Triggering Event Needs Analysis Phase Input Process Output Design Phase Input Process Output

15 15 Training Design Process

16 16 Training Process Model 1.Analysis Phase -identify training needs, which create performance gap (actual<expected performance) -inadequate KSAs of employees, motivations or equipments -identify the importance of different needs 2. Design Phase -design training objectives that provide specific direction for what will be trained and how. Also include training outcomes to be achieved, and factors that needed in training program to facilitate learning and work.

17 17 Training Process Model 3. Development Phase -process of formulating an instructional strategy to meet training objectives. Instructional strategy includes: order, timing, combination of methods and elements used in training programme. 4. Implementation phase -Implementation of the training programme 5. Evaluation Phase -process evaluation determines how well a particular process achieved its objectives. Outcome evaluation determines the effects of training on trainees, job or organization

18 18 Training programme can be delivered by: 1) Internal in-house professionals -Suitable for large organizations, needs of training is stable -Part of HR function -Adv: control of training content, consistent delivery across the organization, tailored to company’s needs. 2) Outsource -employs training agents outside the company -Function of HR is to select appropriate training suppliers (consultants, training firms, professionals seminars) -suitable for organization where training needs vary dramatically over short period of times -Adv: Flexible, reduced costs 3)Mixed strategy

19 19 Traditionally, organizational psychologist use KSAs to stand for different types of learning outcomes: -Knowledge -Skill – general capacities to perform a set of task developed as a result of training and experience -Ability

20 20 Now “Attitudes” is more frequently used to replace ‘ability” because ability has redundant meaning of skills and knowledge : Current interpretation of KSA: -Knowledge –cognitive in nature -Skill – general capacities to perform a set of task developed as a result of training and experience -Attitudinal learning: Affect/Feeling

21 21 Classification of Learning Outcome Skill-Based Learning  Compilation  Automaticity Cognitive Knowledge  Declarative Knowledge  Procedural Knowledge  Strategic Knowledge Attitudinal Learning  Affect/Feelings Learning

22 22 Forces Influencing the Workplace and Training: (1 of 2) Globalization –offshoring Need for leadership Increased value placed on intangible assets and human capital focus on link to business strategy Attracting and retaining talent Customer service and quality emphasis

23 23 Forces Influencing the Workplace and Training: (2 of 2) Changing demographics and diversity of the work force New technology High-performance models of work systems Economic changes

24 24 Focus on Link to Business Strategy Design and development of learning activities that helps companies: –successfully implement strategy –reach business goals Leadership and management development training programs: –classroom instruction –e-learning

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