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University of Pisa Computer Science Department System Administration Stefano Bistarelli University of Pisa Computer Science Department

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Presentation on theme: "University of Pisa Computer Science Department System Administration Stefano Bistarelli University of Pisa Computer Science Department"— Presentation transcript:

1 University of Pisa Computer Science Department System Administration Stefano Bistarelli University of Pisa Computer Science Department Annalina Fabrizio

2 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Outline

3 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Outline

4 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Prima Settimana 9 Introduzione Installazione win2K Installazione Linux Riferimenti: -Lucidi -Cap 1,2,15 libro -RH inst.guide 10 W2K Active Directory Utenti e gruppi Linux Utenti Backup 11 lab -Linux utente1 12 lab -Linux utente2

5 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Seconda settimana 15 lab -Creare disco boot ms-dos con dentro FDISK, FORMAT, etc. -Fare fdisk, fdisk/mbr -installazione win2K -Gestione licenze -Disco di ripristino -Backup, restore -Scheduling di backup nonno-padre- figlio -Uso di comandi NET -Install. Xwin Riferimenti -cap. 1,2,3,15 libro lab Inst Linux, Creare multi boot Backup linux, Inserimento utenti linux Inserimento utenti W2k 19 lab W2k File system Linux FS

6 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Classification of Systems Small sites: have machines, all running the same OS. only about 20 users. There is only one administrator. Medium sites: have up to 100 machines, and may be running up to 3 different OSs. usually has about 100 users. more than one administrator, either specializing in different OSs or sharing general system administrator duties. Large sites: have over 100 computers, multiple operating systems over 100 users. a hierarchy of administration, with the lead or senior System Administrator responsible for all of the systems and assigning duties to one or more assistant administrators.

7 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration System Administration Skills: Novice System Administrator (1/2) Required skills: Strong inter-personal and communication skills: is capable of explaining simple procedures in writing or verbally; has good phone skills. Familiar with Unix and its commands/utilities at the user level. Can edit files using more than one editor. Know shell commands. Can perform standard file processing tasks; find, move, remove, redirection. Required background: Two years of college or equivalent post-high school education or experience.

8 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration System Administration Skills: Novice System Administrator (2/2) Desirable: A degree or certificat in computer science or related field. Previous experience in customer support, computer operations, system administration, or another related area. Motivated to advance in the profession. Appropriate Responsibilities: Perform routine tasks under the direct supervision of a more experienced administrator. Be the front-line interface for users; accepting problem reports and passing them to the appropriate system administrators.

9 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration System Administration Skills: Junior System Administrator (1/2) Required skills: Strong inter-personal and communication skills: capable of training users in applications and Unix fundamentals. Able to write basic system and user documentation. High skill level with most Unix commands and utilities. Familiar with most basic system administration tools and tasks (can cleanly boot and shutdown the system, add and remove user accounts, use backup programs, perform fsck and maintain system database files (groups, hosts, aliases, etc.)). Fundamental understanding of the functioning of the Unix operating system: for example understands job control, hard and soft linking. Required background: One to three years of system administration experience.

10 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration System Administration Skills: Junior System Administrator (2/2) Desirable : Degree in CS or a related field. Familiarity with networked/ distributed computing environments (can use the route command, add a workstation to a network, or mount a remote filesystem.). Ability to write functional scripts in an administrative language (shell, Perl, Tk). Some programming experience in an applicable language like C. Appropriate Responsibilities: Administer a small site alone, or assist in the administration of a larger site. Work under the general supervision of a more senior system administrator or computer systems manager.

11 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration System Administration Skills: Intermediate/Advanced SysAdm (1/2) Required skills: Has strong inter-personal and communication skills: capable of training users in complex topics, making presentations to internal groups. Able to write intricate system and user documentation. Capable of writing and explaining purchase justifications. Independent problem solving; self-directed, self-starting. Very comfortable with most aspects of the Unix operating system: paging/swapping, inter-process communication, devices and device driver fundamentals, file system concepts like inode and superblock. Familiar with fundamental networking/distributed computing environments and concepts. Can configure NFS and NIS, use nslookup or research to check information in the DNS. Ability to write detailed scripts in at least one, preferably two administrative lnaguages, (shell scripts, Perl, Tk). Ability to perform at least minimal debugging and modification of C programs.

12 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration System Administration Skills: Intermediate/Advanced SysAdm (2/2) Required background: Three to five years of system administration experience. Desirable: At least a BS in Computer Science or a related field. Significant programming background in any applicable language. Appropriate Responsibilities: Receive general instructions for new duties from supervisor. Administers a mid-size site alone, or assists in administration of a larger site. Initiates some new responsibilities and helps plan for the future of the site and network. Manages novice system administrators or operators. Evaluates and/or recommends purchases; has strong influence on the purchasing process.

13 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration System Administration Skills: Senior System Administrator (1/2) Required skills: Strong inter-personal and communication skills; capable of writing proposals and papers, acting as a vendor liaison, making presentations to customer/client audiences or making professional presentations, work closely with upper management. Ability to solve problems quickly and completely. Ability to identify tasks which should be automated and then write tools to automate them. Solid understanding of the Unix based operations system: understands paging and swapping, interprocess communication, devices and device drivers, can perform system analysis and tuning. Ability to program in at least one, preferably two administrative languages, (shell, Perl, Tk) and port C programs from one platform to another, write small C programs. Solid understanding of networking/distributed computing environments, understanding the principals of routing, client/server programming, and the design of consistent network-wide filesystems.

14 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration System Administration Skills: Senior System Administrator (2/2) Required background: More than 5 years of previous system administration experience. Desirable: A degree in CS or a related field. Advanced degree preferred. Extensive programming experience in an applicable language. Publications within the field of system administration. Appropriate Responsibilities: Design/implement complex local and wide-area networks of machines. Manages a large site or network. Works under general direction of senior management. Establishes/recommends policies and procedures for system use and services. Provides the technical lead and/or supervision for system administrators, system programmers, or others. Has purchasing authority and responsibility for purchase justification.

15 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Finally, some important thoughts for system Administrators: 1. Never do something you can't undo. 2. Always check the backups, never assume they are working. Make sure you can restore from them, too. 3. Write down what you did, even if you know you will never forget it, you will. 4. If you do it more than once, write a script. 5. Get to know your users before there is a problem, then when there is, they will know who you are and maybe have a little understanding. 6. Remember you are performing a service for your users, you don't own the system, you just get to play with it. 7. Check your backups. 8. Never stop learning, there is always something you should know to make your job easier and your system more stable and secure. 9. Check your backups, again.

16 University of Pisa Computer Science Department history

17 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Unix history (1/4) 1969 Ken Thompson (at Bell Labs): first version of unix on a DEC PDP Thompson and Dennis Ritchie ported it to a DEC PDP-11/20. the first C compiler ( a language in which one could write a portable OS Ritchie and Thompson rewrote the UNIX kernel in C UNIX source code was free to Universities UNIX, 7th edition, released. Portable to various hardware architechures. ATT announces that they would be charging license fees for UNIX source (version 7 forms the basis for all the Unix versions currently available).

18 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Unix history (2/4) 1979 ATT's announcement of its intention to commercialize UNIX. University of California at Berkeley create its own variant: BSD UNIX. The most influencial BSD versions are 4.2 (1983) and 4.3 (1987). The DARPA sponsored development of the Internet was on BSD UNIX. Most of the early commercial vendors of UNIX (Sun (SunOS), DEC (Ultrix), etc.) were largely based on BSD UNIX ATT released the commercial UNIX System V. BSD version 4.2 released ATT UNIX System V release 3. This is the release that various major hardware vendors (HP (HP-UX) and IBM (AIX). BSD v 4.3 was released. ATT and Sun jointly agreed to cooperate on UNIX development to merge/unify System V and BSD.

19 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Unix history (3/4) 1990 ATT issues System V release 4 as a new standard unifying UNIX variants. This was the result of Sun and ATT's cooperation. However, other vendors (especially DEC, HP, IBM) united to creat the Open Software Foundation, OSF. The quip that OSF really stands for Oppose Sun Forever has some truth OSF-1 released. This was also the year that freely distributable Unix clones such as Linux and FreeBSD started Sun develops its Solaris OS: a System V release X Window, the client/server-based graphical user developed at MIT,was ported in a freely distributable form to Intel hardware (XFree86).

20 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Unix history (4/4) 1995 Linux, a unix clone written by Linus Torvalds, is being actively developed by a growing Internet-based community of hackers. Linux The source code is freely available. Ports for Intel, Alpha, Sparc and MIPS hardware. Due to its development and use, documentation for Linux, even when for the user just running Linux on their own machine, has much that is of interest to the Unix system administrator.

21 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Win2000 history 1985 MS-Net per DOS3.10 (file server and print server) 1988 LAN Manager per OS/ MS Win NT 3.1 stesso numero di versione di window e LAN Manager 1994 Win NT Win NT IIS Win NT 4.0 (TCP/IP, DNS, IIS 2.0) ???? Win NT 5 ???? 2000 Window 2K Server

22 University of Pisa Computer Science Department Progettazione installazione server

23 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Progettazione installazione server: che scelta HW? Disco SCSI 1GByte per sistema NTFS Applicativi Dati utente NIC (eth 10/100 Mbps) Stessa scheda su tutti i PC 256 Mbyte RAM Backup Ups Raid

24 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Tools a portata di mano (win2k) Cd win2k Dischetto avvio dos (con driver per ntfs) Dischetto per ripristino Nastro per backup

25 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Istallazione (2 ore) Boot con floppy dos, fdisk, fdisk /mbr Boot con cd (10 min) Partizioni: (10 min) ¼ del disco = partizione ntfs Reboot e inst. Grafica (15 min) Regional setting Modifica tastiera e euro/italia Personalize your sw Nome istallatore Licensing Computer name and adm password Data e ora Copia dei file (1 ora)

26 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Installazione cont. Gestione licenze Settagio ruolo server Aggiunta nomi per altri server 1 DC Gli altri tutti server applicativi Creazione disco di ripristino Backup (e restore)

27 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration tipi di backup di win2k per ogni file "bit di archiviazione" 1=file modificato 0= non modificato (posto a 0 dal backup) backup normale: copia tutti i file (i bit tutti a 0) backup mediante copia: copia tutti i file (ma non cambia bit) backup incrementale: copia solo file modificati da ultimo backup (copia i file con bit a 1 e azzera i bit dei file copiati) backup differenziale (copia i file con bit a 1 ma non li azzera) backup quotidiano (copia file mutati in un determinato giorno, bit immutato)

28 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Schema Nonno-padre-figlio a fine mese backup normale (per 12 mesi) ogni venerdi backup normale settimanale (per 5 settimane=1mese) lun,mart,merc,giov backup incrementale totale di =21 nastri

29 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Installazione Linux!

30 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Installazione Linux (1 ora?) Creazione disco boot RAWRITE IMG Installazione Language setting: english Keyboard configuration Mouse configuration Install type=custom Manual partitioning : fdisk Lilo: creare boot disk Lilo su /dev/hda2

31 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Installazione Linux (1 ora?) Installazione Timezone (not use UTC) Creazione 10 account (per 2 lab successivi) Package (tutto) Xconfiguration

32 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Dati HW (com msd) e da window. Prendere nota per ogni periferica IRQ, I/O, memoria scheda audio Dischi: numero, ide/scsi, cilindri, settori, facce? Ram istallata? cd-rom (ide/scsi)? Scsi adapter? Nic? Mouse (ps2/serial, 2/3 bottoni)? schede video (modello, quantità RAM)? Monitor (vertical, orizontal refresh rate)? Controlla HCL

33 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Proprietà del sistema (1/2)

34 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Proprietà del sistema (2/2)

35 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Linux!

36 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Selezione della Lingua

37 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Configurazione tastiera

38 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Configurazione mouse

39 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Tipo di istallazione

40 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Partizionamento

41 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Configurazione della rete

42 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Regional settings

43 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Inserimento account

44 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration packages

45 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration X Configuration (1/2)

46 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration X Configuration (2/2)

47 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration The end!

48 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Installing ….

49 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Laboratorio win2k: 3 ore installare tutte le macchine, (occorrono 10 cd e 20 floppy) Prima verificare interrupt schede di rete e segnarle su foglietto. Partizioni: cancellare tutto lesistente, riservare ¼ per win2k (almeno 1.5 Gbyte) Setup: selezionare boot da cdrom Aggiungere: Tastiera italiana, codifica italia + euro, Lasciare standard americani Settare fascia oraria gmt+1 Nome utente: nome istallatore, nome società vuoti Nome macchina= gia assegnati a lezione Password= nomemachinapsw Indirizzi di rete come a lezione (dovrebbe fare in automatico)

50 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Laboratorio: 3 ore Modificare licenza per 10 utenti Settare accesso al dominio corsopescia (utente unico per ora: studente, password studentepsw) Creare dischi di ripristino (occorrono 10 dischetti) Backup e restore (vari esempi) Creazione backup schedulato Tramite utilità bachup-scheduling Comando backup a linea di comando Comando at

51 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Laboratorio(extended): 2 ore Comandi NET Installazione xwin su tutte le macchine

52 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Win: inst (cap 1,2,15) backup–Linux:inst (RH ig) Win: regsitro, AD, utenti (cap 4,5,7) Booting/shutdown (fotocopie libro salomon, fotocopie libro, RH rg) Linux: utenti, superuser, backup (fotocopie libro, RH rg) FS, device, disk (cap 8,9 - fotocopie libro, RH rg) Processi, printing (fotocopie salomon,cap 10- fotocopie libro, RH rg) Processi periodici (??, Linux:quota - fotocopie libro, RH rg) Monitoring (cap 17, fotocopie libro, RH rg)

53 University of Pisa Computer Science Department dr. Stefano Bistarelli: System Administration Linux 1 : Rute Linux 2: Win: inst (cap 1,2,15) backup–Linux:inst (RH ig) Win: regsitro, AD, utenti (cap 4,5,7) Booting/shutdown (fotocopie libro salomon, fotocopie libro, RH rg) Linux: utenti, superuser, backup (fotocopie libro, RH rg) FS, device, disk (cap 8,9 - fotocopie libro, RH rg) Processi, printing (fotocopie salomon,cap 10- fotocopie libro, RH rg) Processi periodici (??, Linux:quota - fotocopie libro, RH rg) Monitoring (cap 17, fotocopie libro, RH rg)


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