Claim Example: I am going to try to convince you that chocolate is a healthy snack. State your argument.
Big Names Example: Former U.S. president Bill Clinton thinks that junk food should be taken out of vending machines. Important people or experts can make your argument seem more convincing.
Logos Example: A Snickers bar has 280 calories and 30 grams of sugar. That’s not very healthy. Facts, numbers, and information can be very convincing.
Pathos Example: Your donation might just get this puppy off the street and into a good home. Getting people to feel happy, sad, or angry can help your argument.
Ethos Example: Believe me! I’ve been there before. I’m just like you. If people believe and trust in you, you’re more likely to persuade them.
Inductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning: The more common type of reasoning. It moves from a set of specific examples to a general statement. Example: After examining enrollment statistics, we can conclude that students do not like to take courses offered early in the morning or late in the afternoon. Evidence----------------------------------------------- Generalization
Deductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning: Moves from a general statement to a specific conclusion. It works on the model of the syllogism. Syllogism: A three part argument that consists of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion. Example: Major Premise: All women are mortal. Minor Premise: Jeannne is a woman. Conclusion: Jeannne is mortal. A syllogism will fail to work if either of the premises is untrue. Example: Major Premise: All living creatures are mammals. Minor Premise: A butterfly is a living creature. Conclusion: A butterfly is a mammal. Generalization----------------------------------------- Conclusion
Logical Fallacies Errors in judgment and faulty reasoning
Logical Fallacies Oversimplification: A drastically simple solution to what is clearly a complex problem Example: We have a balance-of-trade deficit because foreigners make better products than we do. Hasty generalization: In inductive reasoning, a generalization that is based on too little evidence or on evidence that is not representative. Example: My grandparents eat bran flakes for breakfast, just as most older folks do. Post hoc, ergo propter hoc: “After this, therefore because of this.” Confusing chance or coincidence with causation. The fact that one event comes after another does not necessarily mean that the first event caused the second. Example: I went to the hockey game last night. The next thing I knew, I had a cold.
Logical Fallacies Begging the question: Assuming in a premise something that needs to be proven Example: Lying is wrong because people should always tell the truth. False analogy: Making a misleading analogy between logically unconnected ideas. Example: If we can clone mammals, we should be able to find a cure to cancer. Either/Or thinking: Seeing only two alternatives when there may, in fact, be other possibilities. Example: Either you love school, or you hate it. Non sequitur: “It does not follow.” An inference or conclusion that is not clearly related to the established premises or evidence. Example: She is very sincere. She must know what she’s talking about.
Research Example: A recent study found that students who watch TV during the week don’t do as well in school. Using reliable research can help your argument seem convincing.