Presentation on theme: "Week 8 Lecture Toddler Language and Thinking"— Presentation transcript:
1 Week 8 Lecture Toddler Language and Thinking RepresentationLanguage Components of LanguageSound Patterns of languageSpeech perceptionProductive and Receptive skillsFirst wordsVocabulary growthUnder and over extensionMorphological rules and overregularizationSyntaxLanguage in Social Settings—pragmaticsTheories of language developmentChild directed speech/motheresePretend playGestures
2 Representational Skills Skills for thinking about, manipulating, and communicating to others about absent objects, past events, abstract thoughts.These skills emerge in toddlerhood but continue to develop for years to come.
4 The Components of Language Phonology - sounds of a language.Semantics - meanings of words.Morphology - grammatical endings.Syntax - sentence structure.Pragmatics – rules for using language
5 The Components of Language Every language has its own set of phonemes, speech sounds that contrast with one another and can change the meaning of a word.The smallest meaningful units in a language are called morphemes.Pragmatics is the set of rules governing conversation and the social use of language.
39 Yes/No Questions Inflection Tag questions Word order and addition The tree died?Tag questionsThe tree died, didn’t it?Word order and additionDid the tree die?
40 Learning to ask Wh questions phase oneChildren will make two word questions ex.Where kitty?Phase twoChildren will add helping verbs to the question but willl often reverse them. ex.Where kitty is going?Phase three Children will form proper questions. ex.Where is the kitty going?
41 Asking Why Questions You went to the store, why? Why you went to the store?Why did you go to the store?
42 NegationPhase oneChildren will put a negation in front of the word they want to negate.ex. No kitty.Phase twochildren will put the negative word into their sentences.ex. That not kitty. Phase threeChildren will be able to add a negative into a sentence correctly ex. That isn't a kitty.
43 Asking negative questions You are going to the store.Are you going to the store?You aren’t going to the store.Aren’t you going to the store?Native speakers understand these constructions, but even for adults they are hard to explain.
44 Active and Passive Voice Non-reversible passivesThe boy kicked the ballThe ball was kicked by the boyReversible passivesThe boy kicked the girlThe girl was kicked by the boyBefore age 4– semantic strategy and first noun is the subject hueristicAge 4 to 6 –rigid word order, first noun is the subjectAfter age 6 – correct understanding of passive construction, although very rare in production
50 The Environment of Language Learning Impact of Child-Directed Speech (CDS)Simplifies input.Makes clear connections between words and what they refer to.Provides chances for linguistic practice.Serves attentional & affective functions in parent-infant interaction.Does not necessarily improve language development.CDS by itself does not explain language acquisition, but it does simplify the input, make clear connections between words and the things they refer to, and provide chances for linguistic practice.It also serves attentional and affective functions in parent-infant interaction.Bruner has suggested that the ways in which adults structure children's language environment should be considered a language acquisition support system (LASS)--a complement to Chomsky's LAD.
51 BilingualismInitially words learned in two languages may not be separated by language.As children learn grammatical morphemes, auxiliary verbs, and other features of syntax, the languages become separate systems.Vocabulary development in each language may be slower than for monolinguals, but the total vocabulary may be larger.Explicit knowledge of syntax is greater for bilinguals.Cognitive executive functioning and cognitive flexibility is greater for bilinguals.Lexical access is slower for bilinguals.