2 Staffing Organizations Model MissionGoals and ObjectivesOrganization StrategyHR and Staffing StrategyStaffing Policies and ProgramsSupport ActivitiesCore Staffing ActivitiesLegal complianceRecruitment: External, internalPlanningSelection: Measurement, external, internalJob analysisEmployment: Decision making, final matchStaffing System and Retention Management8-2
3 Chapter Outline Preliminary Issues Initial Assessment Methods Logic of PredictionNature of PredictorsDevelopment of the Selection PlanSelection SequenceInitial Assessment MethodsResumes and Cover LettersApplication BlanksBiographical InformationInitial Assessment MethodsReferences and Background ChecksHandwriting AnalysisLiteracy TestingGenetic TestingInitial InterviewChoice of MethodsLegal Issues
4 Learning Objectives for This Chapter Understand how the logic of prediction guides the selection processReview the nature of predictors—how selection measures differUnderstand the process involved in developing a selection plan, and the selection sequenceLearn about initial assessment methods and understand how these methods are optimally used in organizationsEvaluate the relative effectiveness of initial assessment methods to determine which work best, and whyReview the legal issues involved in the use of initial assessment methods, and understand how legal problems can be avoided
5 Discussion Questions for This Chapter A selection plan describes which predictor(s) will be used to assess the KSAOs required to perform the job. What are the three steps to follow in establishing a selection plan?In what ways are the following three initial assessment methods similar and in what ways are they different: application blanks, biographical information, and reference and background checks?Describe the criteria by which initial assessment methods are evaluated. Are some of these criteria more important than others?Some methods of initial assessment appear to be more useful than others. If you were starting your own business, which initial assessment methods would you use and why?How can organizations avoid legal difficulties in the use of preemployment inquiries in initial selection decisions?
6 Preliminary Issues Logic of prediction Nature of predictors Development of the selection planSelection sequence
7 Logic of Prediction: Past Performance Predicts Future Performance Not specific enough to make selection decisionsJob titlesNumber of years of experienceWhat counts is the specific types of experiences required and the level of success at each
8 Nature of Predictors Content Form Sign: A predisposition thought to relate to performance (e.g., personality)Sample: Observing behavior thought to relate to performanceCriterion: Actual measure of prior performanceFormSpeed vs. power: How many versus what levelPaper / pencil vs. performance: Test in writing or in behaviorObjective vs. essay: Much like multiple-choice vs. essay course exam questionsOral vs. written vs. computer: How data are obtained
9 Development of the Selection Plan: Steps Involved Develop list of KSAOs required for jobKSAOs are provided by job requirements matrixFor each KSAO, decide if it needs to be assessed in the selection processDetermine method(s) of assessment to be used for each KSAO
10 Ex. 8.3 Assessment Methods by Applicant Flow Stage Initial assessment methodsMinimize the costs associated with substantive assessment methods by reducing the number of people assessed8-10
11 Discussion questionsA selection plan describes which predictor(s) will be used to assess the KSAOs required to perform the job. What are the three steps to follow in establishing a selection plan?
12 Resumes and Cover Letters Information provided is controlled by applicantInformation needs to be verified by other predictors to ensure accuracy and completenessMajor issuesLarge number received by organizationsFalsification and misrepresentation of informationLack of research exists related toValidity or reliabilityCostsAdverse impact
13 Overview of Application Blanks Areas coveredEducational experienceTrainingJob experienceKey advantage -- Organization dictates information providedMajor issue -- Information requested shouldBe critical to job success andReflect KSAOs relevant to jobSample application blank - Exh. 8.4
15 Application Blanks Areas of special interest Educational requirementsLevel of educationGPAQuality of schoolMajor field of studyExtracurricular activitiesTraining and experience requirementsLicensing, certification, and job knowledgeWeighted application blanksEvaluation --> ŕ = .10 to ŕ = .20
16 Biographical Information / Biodata Personal history information of applicant’s background and interests“Best predictor of future behavior is past behavior”Past behaviors may reflect ability or motivationMeasuresExh. 8.5: Examples of Biodata ItemsBiodata compared with background checksBackground checkexamines an applicant’s backgroundconducted through records checks and conversations with referencesBiodataused to predict future performanceinformation is collected by survey
18 Evaluation: Biographical Information / Biodata Test-retest reliability can be high: .77 to .90Predictive validity moderate: r = .32 to .37IssuesGeneralizability beyond first group?Although predictive validity exists, it is not clear what these inventories assessFalsification can be a big problem
19 Reference Reports: Letters of Recommendation ProblemsInability to discern more-qualified from less-qualified applicantsLack of standardizationSuggestions to improve credibilityUse a structured formUse a standardized scoring key
20 Reference Reports: Reference Checks Approach involves verifying applicant’s background via contact withPrior immediate supervisor(s) orHR department of current of previous companiesRoughly 8 of 10 companies conduct reference checksProblemsSame as problems with letters of recommendationReluctance of companies to provide requested information due to legal concernsExh. 8.7: Sample Reference Check
21 Reference Reports: Background Testing Method involves assessing reliability of applicants’ behavior, integrity, and personal adjustmentType of information requestedCriminal historyCredit informationEducational historyEmployment verificationDriver license historiesWorkers’ compensation claimsKey issuesLimited validity evidenceLegal constraints on pre-employment inquiries
22 Evaluation of Reference Reports Predictive validity limited: r = .16 to .26Validity depends on source providing informationHR department, coworker, or relativeSupervisorsWhat sources do you think work best?Cost vs. benefit of approach must be considered
23 Genetic screeningDone to screen out people who are susceptible to certain diseases (e.g., sickle cell anemia) due to exposure to toxic substances at workGenetic screening is not widespread, companies such as Du Pont and Dow Chemical experimented with it to protect their employeesCourt decisions have ruled that genetic screening is prohibited under the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)genetic testing is permissible only when consent has been granted by the applicant or when test results directly bear on an applicant’s ability to perform the job
24 Initial Interview Characteristics Video and computer interviews Begins process of necessary differentiationPurpose -- Screen out most obvious cases of person / job mismatchesLimitation -- Most expensive method of initial assessmentVideo and computer interviewsOffers cost savings
25 Evaluation of Initial Interview Minimal evidence exists regarding usefulnessGuidelines to enhance usefulnessAsk questions assessing most basic KSAOsStick to basic, fundamental questions suitable for making rough cuts rather than subjective questionsKeep interviews briefAsk same questions of all applicants
27 Discussion questionsIn what ways are the following three initial assessment methods similar and in what ways are they different: application blanks, biographical information, and reference and background checks?Describe the criteria by which initial assessment methods are evaluated. Are some of these criteria more important than others?Some methods of initial assessment appear to be more useful than others. If you were starting your own business, which initial assessment methods would you use and why?
28 Legal IssuesDisclaimers - Organization clearly identifies rights it wants to maintainEmployment-at-willVerification consentFalse statement warningReference checksPreemployment inquiriesFederal laws and regulationsEEOC Guide to Preemployment InquiriesADA regulationsState laws and regulations
29 Legal Issues Bona fide occupational qualifications - BFOQs Discrimination based on sex, religion, or national origin, but not race or color, is permitted if it can be shown to be a BFOQ “reasonably necessary to the normal operation” of the businessEmployer justificationsInability to performSame-sex personal contactCustomer preferencePregnancy or fertility
30 Discussion questionsHow can organizations avoid legal difficulties in the use of preemployment inquiries in initial selection decisions?
31 Ethical Issues Issue 1 Issue 2 Is it wrong to “pad” one’s résumé with information that, while not an outright lie, is an enhancement? For example, would it be wrong to term one’s job “maintenance coordinator” when in fact one simply emptied garbage cans?Issue 2Do you think employer have a right to check into applicants’ backgrounds? Even if there is no suspicion of misbehavior? Even if the job poses no security or sensitive risks? Even if the background check includes driving offenses and credit histories?