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HUMAN IMPACT on the BIOSPHERE Chapter 6

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1 HUMAN IMPACT on the BIOSPHERE Chapter 6

2 The Tragedy of the Commons
When a resource (like the environment) is shared, everyone can use it but no one is responsible for protecting it. Each person just uses “a little”, but it often results in the destruction of the “commons”

3 HUMAN IMPACT Watch the Chapter 6 video

4 __________ participate in __________ and biogeochemical ______
Ecosystems provide us with a variety of ___________ HUMANS Food webs cycles resources

5 is anything an organism needs for life RESOURCE
REMEMBER A __________________ is anything an organism needs for life RESOURCE NATURAL RESOURCES = LAND AIR WATER FORESTS

6 regrow RENEWABLE Biogeochemical cycles ________________ RESOURCES
Living can ____________ Non living replaced by _____________________ regrow Biogeochemical cycles

7 unlimited Fresh water Renewable does NOT mean __________
Ex: _____________ is a renewable resource but can become limited by ______ OR _______ unlimited Fresh water drought overuse

8 FRESH WATER RESOURCES renewable Although water is a ______________ resource, the total supply of fresh water is __________. limited

9 FRESH WATER RESOURCES Wetlands remove ________ and
pollutants Wetlands remove ________ and ______ water passing through. purify

10 NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES
NOT BE replenished can _______________________ by natural processes

11 HUMAN POPULATION You are here

12 WORLD POPULATION Current world population is just over _____________
Image from: WORLD POPULATION World clock Current world population is just over _____________ Estimates predict it will reach billion by 2050 7 BILLION

13 HUMAN ACTIVITIES that harm the planet
______________________ ________________ _______________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ _____________________________ OVER HUNTING POACHING HABITAT DESTRUCTION AGRICULTURE POLLUTION URBAN DEVELOPMENT Images from:

14 HUNTING AND GATHERING Throughout human history, people have
________ and _______ in rivers, and _________ wild seeds, fruits, and nuts. We are still doing this today in many places. hunted fished gathered

15 WHEN IT BECOMES A PROBLEM?
_________________ ________________ OVERHUNTING POACHING

16 OVERHUNTING can put animal populations at risk of ____________
extinction Miss Waldron’s Red Colobus monkey Extinct 2000 Alagoas Curassow: extinct in wild 1980’s Dodo: extinct 1681 Moa: extinct 1500’s

17 VOCAB Species that has died out = ______________ extinct
Species that has died out = ______________ Species whose population size is rapidly declining and will become extinct if the trend continues = _____________ Species that is at risk of becoming endangered in the near future = ____________ extinct endangered threatened

18 International Union for Conservation of Nature ( IUCN) RED LIST
= world's main authority on the conservation status of species Currently 3079 animals and 2655 plants classified as Endangered worldwide Compared with 1102 animals and 1197 plants in 1998

19 EXAMPLE: WHALES overkill endangerment
During the 19th and the earlier part of 20th centuries, over-hunting led to a severe _________of whale populations, and to _______________ of many whale species. overkill endangerment Minke whale = most hunted species

20 Today many major whales species are endangered
North Atlantic Right < 350 Southern Right 3000 Bowhead 8000 Blue 2,300 Sei 10-28,000 Humpback 10,000 8,000

21 North American Buffalo
Wild buffalo ___________ in America once numbered million, ranging from Virginia to Alaska. By 1884, the buffalo was close to extinction due to __________. Pile of bison skulls, 1870’s overhunting

22 WHY POACH? Many endangered big game animals today are threatened by__________________ Illegal poaching

23 $ WHY POACH? Fur Tusks/horns Tourist souveniers Medicine ? Artwork
Fur Tusks/horns Tourist souveniers Medicine ? Artwork $ ttp://

24 EXAMPLE: Rhinos habitat loss poaching Rhino horns endangered
All five rhino species are ____________ Just a few decades ago, the world’s rhino population exceeded 100,000, but today there are less than 11,000 due to _____________ and _____________. _______________ are in demand in many countries where they can bring over $60,000/lb. ~ ground into medicine (China) ~ carved into ceremonial dagger handles (Yemen) habitat loss poaching Rhino horns

25 HOW DO WE HELP? Preserves/Sanctuaries Captive breeding programs
Laws/regulations Support “GREEN” organizations

26 PRESERVES/SANCTUARIES
Preserving habitat Establishing protected areas Game ranger patrols to prevent poaching Education

27 How do we help? Captive breeding ___________________
Animals are raised and protected in zoos until population is stable, then returned to wild

28 HOW DO WE HELP? CAPTIVE BREEDING:
Conservation efforts, private ownership, and reintroduction of buffalo have allowed the population to recover Today-total bison population in North America is estimated at 500,000 About 85 percent of these animals are privately owned.

29 LAWS/REGULATIONS International Whaling Commission has
placed a moratorium on whaling for certain species Only works if nations voluntarily comply

30 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
LAWS & REGULATIONS The________________________________________________________ (CITES) bans international ______ in products from endangered species. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species trade

31 WHAT CAN WE DO TO HELP? Support “Green” organizations that work for laws to establish quotas and protect species. POWER OF ONE VIDEO

32 THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY _______________________
__________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ HABITAT DESTRUCTION Agriculture Urban development Deforestation Fragmentation Invasive species Pollution

33 Importance of Agriculture
By middle of 20th century, despite agricultural advances there were ________________in many parts of the world. Governments and scientists began a major effort to ___________ food production food shortages increase

34 __________ REVOLUTION
GREEN __________ REVOLUTION New more productive plant ________ 2. Modern farming____________ allowed planting larger areas 3. Chemical ___________ & ___________ boosted crop production and controlled pests strains techniques fertilizers pesticides

35 HOW WE HARM THE ENVIRONMENT
Large fields are planted with a single variety year after year = ________________ MONOCULTURE

36 WHY IS THIS A PROBLEM? Modern MONOCULTURE agriculture allows
farmers to grow more food BUT . . . __________ and ______________ ~ kill ________ insects _________from feedlots and fields ~ __________ surface and ground water Fertilizers pesticides beneficial Runoff Contaminate

37 Impact of Agriculture Wearing away of topsoil = ____________ is caused by plowing land and removing plant roots Soil erosion

38 Impact of Agriculture ____________ = changing of fertile land in dry climates into desert areas caused by farming, overgrazing, and drought Desertification

39 Challenges for Future Finding enough __________ for irrigation is another problem. Less than ¼ of US farmland relies heavily on ___________, but this area produces a __________ portion of our harvest. water irrigation major

40 Challenges for Future Many Midwest states rely
Many Midwest states rely on the ___________aquifer for their water needs. We are ______________ faster than the water cycle can _____________ it. Evidence indicates this aquifer may _________ within years. OGALLALA using water replenish run dry

41 HOW DO WE HELP? technology
Modern_________ is changing how farmers farm and lessening the impact on the environment. EX: __________ imaging _____ technology enable farmers to apply chemicals only where______________ Satellite GPS needed

42 HOW DO WE FIX IT? EX: ________ and other “green” farming methods can reduce ____________ and protect ___________________ “No-till” soil erosion ecosystems

43 Sustainable Agriculture Ways to preserve the environment
Cover Crops Legumes, grasses, and other cover crops recycle soil nutrients, reduce fertilizer need, and prevent weed growth. Controlled Grazing By managing graze periods and herd densities, farmers can improve nutrient cycling, increase the effectiveness of precipitation, and increase the carrying capacity of pastures. Biological Pest Control The use of predators and parasites to control destructive insects minimizes pesticide use as well as crop damage A B C Yr. 1 Crop Rotation Different crops use and replenish different nutrients. By rotating crops, the loss of important plant nutrients is decreased. Contour Plowing Contour plowing reduces soil erosion from land runoff. On hilly areas, plowing is done across the hill rather than straight up and down. corn oats alfalfa Yr. 2 alfalfa (plowed in) corn alfalfa Yr. 3 oats alfalfa corn

44 INDUSTRIAL GROWTH and URBAN DEVELOPMENT
The impact of humans on the biosphere was transformed by the _____________________ during the 1800’s. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

45 Industrial productivity and scientific
advancements have provided us with the ______________________ we enjoy today modern conveniences

46 Loss of forests = ____________
FOREST RESOURCES Loss of forests = ____________ can result in erosion and loss of nutrients preventing regrowth deforestation

47 DEFORESTATION Changes in Brazilian rainforest over 30 years The tropical rainforests once covered more than 14% of the earth's total land surface, but now cover less than 6%.

48 HABITAT DESTRUCTION Tropical rainforests are disappearing
Tropical rainforests are disappearing at a rate of about 80 acres per minute.

49 BIODIVERSITY THREAT Nearly half of the world's species of plants, animals and microorganisms will be destroyed or severely threatened over the next quarter century due to ____________________________ rainforest deforestation.

50 HOW DO WE HELP? Sustainable development: Stop clear cutting of forests/jungles Selective harvest of mature trees Replanting of logged areas Tree farms Breeding new, faster growing species

51 WHAT’S THE PROBLEM? Destruction of habitats Air & water pollution
Use of resources Uses lots of fossil fuel All lead to a decrease in _______________ BIODIVERSITY

52 Scientists estimate there are 10-30 million
Image from: Scientists estimate there are million plant and animal species on the planet Most of these are unidentified. Some scientists estimate at the rate we are going ___ of the plants and animals will be committed to extinction by 2050 1/4

53 Officially over 5,000 species of
Image from: Officially over 5,000 species of animals and birds are listed as Endangered or Threatened on our planet Believed that some 10,000 species have gone extinct in just the past 100 years

54 BIODIVERSITY THREAT habitat destruction
Development of natural areas for cities or agriculture results in ____________________ habitat destruction

55 BIODIVERSITY THREAT Habitat fragmentation
Splitting a habitat into smaller disconnected pieces = _____________________ It results in small “islands” of natural area isolated from each other by crop land, pasture, pavement, or even barren land. Habitat fragmentation

56 BIODIVERSITY THREAT Habitat fragmentation brings wildlife in
more frequent contact with humans. When it comes down to “us or them” . . . “they” usually lose.

57 WHAT DOES IT MEAN? REMEMBER! Everything is connected.
BIODIVERSITY is a measure of the _________ of an ecosystem. _______ DIVERSITY = ___________ HEALTH MORE BETTER Image from: Pearson Education Inc, publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall ©2006

58 BIODIVERSITY THREAT INVASIVE SPECIES PREDATORS INCREASE
One of most important threats to biodiversity come from apparently harmless plants or animals that humans transport into new habitats =____________________ New habitats don’t have ____________ and parasites that control the population in their native habitats, so invasive species populations _____________ rapidly. INVASIVE SPECIES PREDATORS INCREASE

59 EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES
24 rabbits turned loose for hunting in 1859 in Australia, reproduced at such a rapid rate they have taken over the continent. Within 10 years they had multiplied so rapidly, 2 million rabbits a year could be shot or trapped without any noticeable effect on population.

60 EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES
They are believed to be responsible for the ___________ of 1/8 of the mammal species, unknown numbers of plant species, as well as serious _____________ problems. It is still a major problem and rabbit diseases have been purposely introduced to try to control the population. extinction soil erosion

61 EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES
Zebra mussels _________________ are native to the Caspian Sea region of Asia. They are believed to have been transported to the Great Lakes in the ballast water from a ship. They were first discovered in 1988, and have since spread rapidly to all of the Great Lakes and waterways in many states including _______________________ and into Canada. SOUTH DAKOTA

62 PROBLEMS CAUSED BY ZEBRA MUSSELS
Clog power plant and public water intakes and pipes, costing taxpayers millions of dollars · Damage boat engines · Blanket shorelines with their sharp shells and foul smell · Consume available food for native species and smother native mussels · Threaten water-based recreational activities

63 EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES
LEAFY SPURGE __________________ is native to Europe and Asia and first appeared in Massachusetts in 1827. Across _____________ and much of the Great Plains, leafy spurge is one of the most threatening invasive plants, ____________ out native grassland and damaging ___________________. South Dakota crowding grazing land

64 EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES
302,000 acres in South Dakota are infested with LEAFY SPURGE. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, leafy spurge infestations in the Dakotas, Montana and Wyoming alone cost agricultural producers and taxpayers at least $144 million annually in production losses, control expenses and other impacts to the economy .

65 BIODIVERSITY THREAT pollutants The addition of ________________
= harmful materials that can enter the biosphere through land, water or air can also threaten biodiversity.

66 AIR RESOURCES Pollutant smog
___________ = harmful material that can enter the biosphere through land, air, or water ________ = Mixture of chemicals that appear as a gray-brown haze in the atmosphere smog

67 AIR RESOURCES fossil fuels Burning __________ releases pollutants
that cause smog and other problems in atmosphere. Toxic chemicals like nitrates, sulfates, and particulates can cause ________________ like ___________ fossil fuels breathing problems asthma

68 _____ was first modern insecticide
Example: _____ was first modern insecticide It was cheap, stayed active for long time, and kills many different insects Used to control agriculture pests and disease carrying _______________ DDT MOSQUITOES

69 drained into rivers and streams at LOW concentrations.
When DDT was sprayed, it drained into rivers and streams at LOW concentrations.

70 doesn’t ______________. food chain tissues degrade
DDT in the environment gets into organisms through the ___________, is stored in __________, and doesn’t ______________. food chain tissues degrade

71 → → BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION ______________________________
= the ____________ of a harmful substance ____________as it passes to organisms at _______________levels in food chain or web. concentration increases higher trophic Plants pick up DDT from water & store it Herbivores eat plants and store some DDT Carnivores eat herbivores and store more DDT

72 Figure 6-16 Biological Magnification of DDT
Section 6-3 Magnification of DDT Concentration Fish-Eating Birds 10,000,000 Large Fish 1,000,000 100,000 Small Fish 10,000 Zooplankton 1000 Producers Water 1

73 The wide spread use of DDT threatened many species… especially fish eating birds like osprey, brown pelican, and bald eagles. DDT causes birds to lay eggs with ___________ shells so eggs would break when sat on. American Bald Eagle was declared endangered in It has since been reclassified as _____________________ fragile “threatened”

74 told of DDT’s harmful effects.
In 1962, American biologist _______________ published the book,_____________ which told of DDT’s harmful effects. The book led to a large public outcry and eventually resulted in DDT being _________ in the United States in the 1970’s The book was one of the important events in the birth of the _________________________. Rachel Carson Silent Spring banned environmental movement

75 HOW DO WE HELP ? Smokestack “Scrubbers” can control emissions
Auto emission standards Clean air regulations Reduce use of fossil fuels

76 FRESH WATER RESOURCES Americans use BILLIONS of gallons of
freshwater daily for ________, ________ and ___________________ drinking washing watering crops

77 DON’T FORGET THE _________________ Water used to make products that we don’t think or know about
“INVISIBLE WATER” The PRODUCTION OF: 1 kg wheat costs 1,300 L water kg rice costs 3,400 L water 1 kg eggs costs 3,300 L water 1 kg beef costs 15,000 L water 1 cotton shirt costs 2,500 L water 1000 g of blue jeans costs 10,850 liters water 1 ton passenger car costs 400,000 liters of water Building a house uses about 6 million liters of water VIDEO

78 HOW DO WE HELP ? Water conservation Protect wetlands and forests
Water treatment plants Clean water regulations hhttp://

79 WAYS TO CONSERVE WATER

80 THE BIG QUESTION ? Human activities affect ________________ like land, forests, air, fresh water. How can we provide for our needs without using up all resources? _____________________________ renewable resources = SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ~ Use natural resources without using them up ~ Provide for human needs WITHOUT causing long term environmental harm

81 CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY
Wise management of natural resources = __________________ Protecting endangered species requires detailed information about ecological _________________ We can’t protect a species without understanding how it ____________ with the _________________. conservation relationships interacts ecosystem

82 CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY
Today conservation efforts focus on protecting entire ecosystems not just individual species ______________ = are places that are MOST endangered HOT SPOTS Image from: Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall© 2006

83 WHAT CAN BE DONE? Urban planning so there is less “ Sprawl”
Set aside land for parks/preserves Research to understand species/ecosystem interactions Concentration of $ on “HOT SPOTS” to maximize results for $ spent

84 HUMAN IMPACT on the BIOSPHERE Chapter 6-4 Charting a course for the Future

85 BIG ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
DEAD ZONES ___________________ OZONE DEPLETION ACID RAIN GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE WASTE

86 DEAD ZONES When an ecosystem receives a LARGE input
REMEMBER ! When an ecosystem receives a LARGE input of limiting nutrient (ie., fertilizer runoff) the population increases dramatically = ___________ ALGAL BLOOM

87

88

89

90 Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone
The DEADZONE forms each April, generally grows throughout the summer, reaching a peak in late July.

91 Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone
At its peak, the nearly lifeless water can span 5,000 to 8,000-plus square miles, an area almost the size of New Jersey

92 DEAD ZONES How do we HELP?
Use modern technology and “green” farming methods to: Decrease agricultural fertilizer use Decrease runoff of agricultural waste

93 OZONE LAYER Our atmosphere between 20-50 km contains
OZONE LAYER Our atmosphere between 20-50 km contains high concentrations of ____________ which protect us from the sun’s harmful ______________ radiation. OZONE (O3) ultra-violet

94 EFFECTS OF UV RADIATION
Skin cancer __________________________________ ________________________ of skin Reduces ________________ Disrupts __________________ in oceans Premature aging Cataracts/blindness crop yield food chains Click here to see a movie about the effects of UV radiation WMV, 618K

95 Click here to see a movie
WHAT WE KNOW Scientists have been monitoring the ____________ of ozone in our atmosphere and have discovered a hole in the ozone layer over ____________. depletion Antarctica Click here to see a movie about the ozone hole WMV, 616K

96 The annual ozone "hole“ over Antarctica has
occurred during the Antarctic Spring (October) since the early 1980s. Rather than being an actual hole through the layer, the ozone hole is a large area with extremely low amounts of ozone. Ozone levels fall by over 60% during the worst years.

97 Ozone depletion is a global issue NOT
just a problem at the South Pole. Research has shown that ozone depletion also occurs over North America, Europe, Asia, and much of Africa, Australia, and South America. Over the U.S., ozone levels have fallen 5-10%, depending on the season.

98 What’s the cause of Ozone Depletion?
Chlorofluorocarbon molecules _______ released from air conditioners, aerosol spray cans, fire extinguishers, and industry ________________ (CFC’s) destroy ozone

99 OZONE DEPLETION MONTREAL PROTOCOL
HOW DO WE HELP? 1987- the _______________________ committed signing nations (including USA) to a ____________ in the use of CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances. CFC production was _________ after 1995 in the developed countries, and later in developing countries. Today, over 180 countries have ratified the treaty. MONTREAL PROTOCOL REDUCTION banned

100 THAT’S WHY . . . AEROSOL _____________spray cans no longer contain
_____________spray cans no longer contain CFC propellants. Gases in ___________________ and _____________ are collected and recycled. AIR CONDITIONERS refrigerators

101 OZONE DEPLETION How do we help?
We can't make enough ozone to replace what's been destroyed, but provided that we stop producing ozone-depleting substances, computer models predict natural ozone production reactions should return the ozone layer to normal levels by about 2050. This is the first example of different countries getting together on an environmental issue, agreeing on what to do, doing something, and seeing a positive effect

102 Chemical Transformation Emissions to Atmosphere
ACID RAIN What’s the cause?________________________ BURNING FOSSIL FUELS Chemical Transformation Nitric acid Sulfuric acid Condensation Emissions to Atmosphere Nitrogen oxides Sulfur dioxide Dry Fallout Precipitation Acid rain, fog, snow, and mist particulates, gases Industry Transportation Ore smelting Power generation Nitrogen oxides Sulfur oxides Releases _______________ and ________________ into the atmosphere that react with water to produce ACID RAIN.

103

104 ACID RAIN EFFECTS damages buildings and statues damages forests
kills fish reduces biodiversity causes illness & premature death from heart & lung disorders like asthma and bronchitis

105 ACID RAIN HOW DO WE HELP? Develop a National energy policy that emphasizes use of alternative renewable energy sources Cut down on activities that use fossil fuels ~ conserve electricity ~ drive less Drive automobiles with increased fuel efficiency OR run on alternative fuels Recycle (uses less energy than starting from scratch)

106 GREENHOUSE EFFECT Temperatures of Earth remain within a range
______________ because the _____________ acts as a natural _________________ blanket. suitable for life atmosphere insulating

107 GREENHOUSE EFFECT Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) methane water vapor CFC’s
Atmospheric gases such as ___________________ NORMALLY trap heat energy from the sun like a greenhouse = _____________________ Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) methane water vapor CFC’s Greenhouse effect

108 GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE- Is it real?
Some people say that the Earth has cycles of warmer/cooler climate change and that this is just part of that cycle. Most scientists believe that the increase in global temperatures is the result of human activities that have increased the amount of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere

109 1. "warming of the climate system is unequivocal“
In 2007 in Paris a U.N.- backed panel of international scientists issued a major announcement on climate change stating that: 1. "warming of the climate system is unequivocal“ 2. There is a 90% probability the cause “man- made”. Either way… our planet is getting warmer!

110 FACTS WE KNOW Global mean surface temperatures have increased °F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's ten warmest years have occurred in the last 15 years of this century.

111 FACTS WE KNOW The snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere and floating ice in the Arctic Ocean have decreased. Graph & glacier pix: polar bears:

112 FACTS WE KNOW Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have
increased steadily.

113 GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE WHAT’S the CAUSE?
Burning solid waste, fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), wood and wood products Production and transport of fossil fuels Decomposition of organic wastes in landfills Animal sources (methane) Deforestation (trees remove CO2 from atmosphere)

114 What’s so bad about warming up a little?
We’re freezing here!

115 Coastal flooding What’s so bad about warming up a little?
Cartoon from Brookings Register Coastal flooding

116 Changes in Gulf Stream What’s so bad about warming up a little?
What’s so bad about warming up a little? Changes in Gulf Stream

117 More severe storms What’s so bad about warming up a little?
More severe storms

118 Weather extremes What’s so bad about warming up a little?
Heat waves and drought Brookings Register

119 Changing habitats means loss of species
What’s so bad about warming up a little? Changing habitats means loss of species

120 What’s the Kyoto Accord?
International agreement signed in 1997 Aimed at reducing global warming Participants asked to _______ their ________________ emissions to a percentage below 1990 emission levels Set binding targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for countries to reach ___________ 37 industrialized countries (includes US) which make almost 65% of greenhouse gases (GHG) were to decrease to ~ 5% less than levels (US target = 7%) REDUCE GREENHOUSE GAS by 2012

121 PROBLEMS WITH KYOTO ACCORD
ALL countries not required to reduce emissions equally 7% for the US, 6% for Japan, 0% for Russia, Developing nations didn’t have to reduce emissions at all India and China, which have ratified the protocol, are not required to reduce carbon emissions under the present agreement despite their relatively large populations. Developed nations (like USA) could meet required reductions by purchasing emission reductions from elsewhere and funding developing countries for climate related studies, projects, and technology

122 KYOTO is “OLD NEWS”! UNITED STATES The ________________ is the only major industrial country that did NOT signed the Kyoto Accord. Met in December Copenhagen, Denmark

123 Current Status OBJECTIVE: to keep the maximum temperature rise to below 2 degrees Celsius; the commitment to new reduction targets by developing countries for 2020 Proposed $ 30 billion short-term funding for immediate action till 2012 and $100 billion annually by 2020 in long-term financing (still needs to be approved by countries) The challenge now is to turn what is agreed into something that is legally binding

124 WHAT NEXT? Some developed countries have already declared that they will not continue to follow commitments to reduce emissions developing countries have increased their carbon emissions by 130% or more Delegates from nearly 200 countries have met several times for major climate talks, but no new agreement has been reached. They have just agreed to “talk about it” Some countries say no deal will be in place until at least 2020.

125 What is a CARBON FOOTPRINT?
What is a CARBON FOOTPRINT? A ____________________ = the total set of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions caused directly and indirectly by an individual, organization, event or product CARBON FOOTPRINT

126 The US is no longer the #1 CO2 emitter
but we contribute to the problem.

127 Even if you don’t “believe” in global warming . . .
Even if you don’t “believe” in global warming . . . Even if countries can’t agree on emission levels … we should still work to reduce our emissions of global warming gases BECAUSE . . .

128 THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway!
THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! Fossil fuels are a limited resource… eventually they will be gone!

129 THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway!
Our supply of fossil fuels is dependent on countries that are not “friendly” to the U.S.

130 THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway!
Brookings Register March 2012 Our supply of fossil fuels is dependent on countries that are not “friendly” to the U.S.

131 THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway!
Brookings Register Drilling for and transporting fossil fuels has negative environmental consequences

132 THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway!
Drilling and transporting fossil fuels has negative environmental consequences Brookings Register

133 THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway!
HOW QUICKLY WE FORGET! BP oil spill in Gulf 2011 Drilling and transporting fossil fuels has negative environmental consequences Brookings Register

134 THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway!
Images from: Innovation and alternative energy technologies for automobiles and power generation are good for our economy

135 BAD BEST! REALLY BAD THINK ABOUT IT
Scientists are RIGHT about man-made global warming Scientists are WRONG about man-made global warming WE KEEP DOING WHAT WE ARE DOING- NOTHING! Environmental Disaster Consequences too awful to think about Still have other problems associated with fossil fuel use: pollution/acid rain/ dependence on our enemies WE WORK TO GET OFF FOSSIL FUELS CHANGES HELP TURN THINGS AROUND + solve other fossil fuel problems- Solves other problems associated with fossil fuel use REALLY BAD BAD BEST! GOOD!

136 HOW DO WE HELP? Develop a National energy policy that emphasizes
use of alternative renewable energy sources

137 GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE HOW DO WE HELP? Watch your carbon footprint
Cut down on activities that use fossil fuels Drive automobiles with increased fuel efficiency OR run on alternative fuels Cut down on CO2 emissions (with or without the Kyoto accord) Recycle (uses less energy than starting from scratch) Reduce deforestation (plants use CO2)

138 WHAT DO WE DO WITH OUR TRASH?
According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the average American produces about 4.4 pounds of garbage a day. That adds up to a approximately 220 million tons of garbage each year for all of us. This only takes into consideration the average household member and does not count industrial waste or commercial trash.

139 PICTURE THIS: It would bury more than 990,000 football fields under six-foot high piles of waste.. . . . and that’s just the United States!

140 TRASH KILLS It has been estimated that over
a million sea-birds and 100,000 marine mammals and sea turtles are killed each year by ingestion of plastics or entanglement.

141 PLASTIC IS FOREVER! PLASTIC IS MADE FROM FOSSIL FUELS!
PLASTIC IS FOREVER!

142 PACIFIC OCEAN GARBAGE GYRE
PACIFIC OCEAN GARBAGE GYRE Covers an area twice the size of TEXAS Estimated to contain over 100 million tons of debris Two linked areas on either side Hawaiian islands Western and Eastern Pacific Garbage Patches

143 Why is the world's biggest landfill in the Pacific Ocean?
See a video

144 We Can’t Just Keep Piling it up in Landfills
Plastic recycling video We have to REDUCE, REUSE, RECYCLE

145 QUOTES This we know... the earth does not belong to man,
man belongs to earth. All things are connected, like the blood which connects one family. Whatever befalls the earth befalls the children of the earth. Man did not weave the web of life – he is merely a strand in it.  Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself. ~ Chief Seattle, 1854

146 If you want to see an endangered species, get up and look in the mirror. ~  John Young, former Apollo astronaut A true conservationist is a man who knows that the world is not given by his fathers, but borrowed from his children. ~ John James Audubon, It's not easy being green. ~  Kermit the Frog Unless someone like you cares a whole awful lot, Nothing is going to get better. It's not ~ Dr. Seuss, The Lorax

147 WE NEED TO START CONSIDERING THE EFFECTS ON OUR PLANET WHEN WE MAKE DECISIONS!

148 SOURCES http://www.animation-station.com/smileys/index.php?page=17

149 SOURCES http://www.oldetimecooking.com/Images/Fruits/Apple.jpg

150 Core High School Nature of Science Performance Descriptors
High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: given a scientific discovery, evaluate how different societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the investigation and its interpretation; High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: given a scientific discovery narrative, determine and describe how societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the investigation and its interpretation; High school students performing at the BASIC level: describe the role of observation in the development of hypotheses, theories, and laws and conduct student investigations; given a scientific discovery narrative, identify the cultural and personal beliefs that influenced the investigation.

151 Core High School Life/Earth Science Performance Descriptors
High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: predict the effect of an interruption in a given cycles; predict how human activity may change the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth. High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: predict how life systems respond to changes in the environment; describe how various factors may affect global climate; explain how human activity changes the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth High school students performing at the BASIC level: describe one factor that may affect global climate; give an example of human activity that changes the land, ocean, or atmosphere of Earth

152 Core High School Technology, Environment, Society Performance Descriptors
High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: modify a technology taking into consideration limiting factors of design; given a narrative of a scientific discovery, defend a position on the impact of the ethical issues. High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify and evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of scientific issues evaluate factors that could limit technological design; given a narrative description of a resource, analyze and describe the benefits, limitations, cost, and consequences involved in its use, conservation, or recycling High school students performing at the BASIC level: given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify the immediate consequences of scientific issues; identify ethical roles and responsibilities concerning a given research project; identify factors that could limit technological design; given a narrative description of a resource, describe a benefit and limitation involved in its use, conservation, or recycling.

153 Core High School Nature of Science Performance Descriptors
High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: given a scientific discovery, evaluate how different societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the investigation and its interpretation; High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: given a scientific discovery narrative, determine and describe how societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the investigation and its interpretation; High school students performing at the BASIC level: describe the role of observation in the development of hypotheses, theories, and laws and conduct student investigations; given a scientific discovery narrative, identify the cultural and personal beliefs that influenced the investigation.

154 Core High School Life/Earth Science Performance Descriptors
High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: predict the effect of an interruption in a given cycles; predict how human activity may change the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth. High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: predict how life systems respond to changes in the environment; describe how various factors may affect global climate; explain how human activity changes the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth High school students performing at the BASIC level: describe one factor that may affect global climate; give an example of human activity that changes the land, ocean, or atmosphere of Earth

155 Core High School Technology, Environment, Society Performance Descriptors
High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: modify a technology taking into consideration limiting factors of design; given a narrative of a scientific discovery, defend a position on the impact of the ethical issues. High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify and evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of scientific issues evaluate factors that could limit technological design; given a narrative description of a resource, analyze and describe the benefits, limitations, cost, and consequences involved in its use, conservation, or recycling High school students performing at the BASIC level: given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify the immediate consequences of scientific issues; identify ethical roles and responsibilities concerning a given research project; identify factors that could limit technological design; given a narrative description of a resource, describe a benefit and limitation involved in its use, conservation, or recycling.


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