2 The Tragedy of the Commons When a resource (like the environment) is shared, everyone can use it but no one is responsible for protecting it.Each person just uses “a little”, but it often results in the destruction of the “commons”
12 WORLD POPULATION Current world population is just over _____________ Image from:WORLD POPULATIONWorld clockCurrent world population is justover _____________Estimates predict it will reach billion by 20507 BILLION
13 HUMAN ACTIVITIES that harm the planet _____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________ ________________________________________________________OVER HUNTINGPOACHINGHABITAT DESTRUCTIONAGRICULTUREPOLLUTIONURBAN DEVELOPMENTImages from:
14 HUNTING AND GATHERING Throughout human history, people have ________ and _______ in rivers, and _________ wild seeds, fruits, and nuts.We are still doing this today in many places.hunted fishedgathered
15 WHEN IT BECOMES A PROBLEM? _________________________________OVERHUNTINGPOACHING
16 OVERHUNTING can put animal populations at risk of ____________ extinctionMiss Waldron’s Red Colobus monkeyExtinct 2000Alagoas Curassow:extinct in wild 1980’sDodo: extinct 1681Moa: extinct 1500’s
17 VOCAB Species that has died out = ______________ extinct Species that has died out = ______________Species whose population size israpidly declining and will becomeextinct if the trend continues= _____________Species that is at risk ofbecoming endangered inthe near future = ____________extinctendangeredthreatened
18 International Union for Conservation of Nature ( IUCN) RED LIST = world's main authority on the conservation status of species Currently 3079 animals and 2655 plants classified as Endangered worldwide Compared with 1102 animals and 1197 plants in 1998
19 EXAMPLE: WHALES overkill endangerment During the 19th and the earlier part of20th centuries, over-hunting led to asevere _________of whalepopulations, and to _______________of many whale species.overkillendangermentMinke whale = most hunted species
20 Today many major whales species are endangered North Atlantic Right< 350Southern Right3000Bowhead8000Blue2,300Sei10-28,000Humpback10,0008,000
21 North American Buffalo Wild buffalo___________ in America once numbered million, ranging from Virginia to Alaska.By 1884, thebuffalo was closeto extinctiondue to __________.Pile of bison skulls, 1870’soverhunting
22 WHY POACH?Many endangered big game animals today are threatened by__________________Illegal poaching
24 EXAMPLE: Rhinos habitat loss poaching Rhino horns endangered All five rhino species are ____________Just a few decades ago, the world’srhino population exceeded 100,000,but today there are less than 11,000due to _____________ and _____________._______________ are in demand in many countries where they can bring over $60,000/lb.~ ground into medicine (China)~ carved into ceremonial dagger handles (Yemen)habitat losspoachingRhino horns
25 HOW DO WE HELP? Preserves/Sanctuaries Captive breeding programs Laws/regulationsSupport “GREEN” organizations
27 How do we help? Captive breeding ___________________ Animals are raised and protected in zoos until population is stable, then returned to wild
28 HOW DO WE HELP? CAPTIVE BREEDING: Conservation efforts, private ownership, andreintroduction of buffalo have allowed thepopulation to recoverToday-total bison population in North America is estimated at500,000About 85 percent of theseanimals are privately owned.
29 LAWS/REGULATIONS International Whaling Commission has placed a moratorium on whaling for certain speciesOnly works if nations voluntarily comply
30 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species LAWS & REGULATIONSThe________________________________________________________ (CITES)bans international ______ in productsfrom endangered species.Convention on International Trade in Endangered Speciestrade
31 WHAT CAN WE DO TO HELP?Support “Green” organizations that work for laws to establish quotas and protect species.POWER OF ONEVIDEO
33 Importance of Agriculture By middle of 20th century, despite agricultural advances there were ________________in many parts of the world.Governments and scientists began a major effort to ___________ food productionfood shortagesincrease
34 __________ REVOLUTION GREEN__________ REVOLUTIONNew more productiveplant ________2. Modern farming____________allowed planting larger areas3. Chemical ___________ & ___________ boosted crop production and controlled pestsstrainstechniquesfertilizers pesticides
35 HOW WE HARM THE ENVIRONMENT Large fields areplanted with asingle varietyyear after year= ________________MONOCULTURE
36 WHY IS THIS A PROBLEM? Modern MONOCULTURE agriculture allows farmers to grow more food BUT . . .__________ and ______________~ kill ________ insects_________from feedlots and fields ~ __________ surface and ground waterFertilizers pesticidesbeneficialRunoffContaminate
37 Impact of AgricultureWearing away of topsoil = ____________ is caused by plowing land and removing plant rootsSoil erosion
38 Impact of Agriculture____________ = changing of fertile land in dry climates into desert areas caused by farming, overgrazing, and droughtDesertification
39 Challenges for FutureFinding enough __________ for irrigation is another problem.Less than ¼ of US farmlandrelies heavily on ___________,but this area produces a__________ portion ofour harvest.waterirrigationmajor
40 Challenges for Future Many Midwest states rely Many Midwest states relyon the ___________aquiferfor their water needs.We are ______________faster than thewater cycle can _____________ it.Evidence indicates this aquifer may _________ within years.OGALLALAusing waterreplenishrun dry
41 HOW DO WE HELP? technology Modern_________ is changing how farmers farm and lessening the impact on the environment.EX:__________ imaging_____ technologyenable farmers toapply chemicals onlywhere______________SatelliteGPSneeded
42 HOW DO WE FIX IT?EX:________ and other “green” farming methods can reduce ____________and protect ___________________“No-till”soil erosionecosystems
43 Sustainable Agriculture Ways to preserve the environment Cover CropsLegumes, grasses, and othercover crops recycle soil nutrients,reduce fertilizer need, andprevent weed growth.Controlled GrazingBy managing graze periods and herddensities, farmers can improve nutrientcycling, increase the effectiveness ofprecipitation, and increase the carryingcapacity of pastures.Biological Pest ControlThe use of predators and parasitesto control destructive insectsminimizes pesticide use as well ascrop damageABCYr. 1Crop RotationDifferent crops use andreplenish differentnutrients. By rotatingcrops, the loss ofimportant plant nutrientsis decreased.Contour PlowingContour plowing reducessoil erosion from land runoff.On hilly areas, plowing is doneacross the hill rather thanstraight up and down.cornoatsalfalfaYr. 2alfalfa (plowed in)cornalfalfaYr. 3oatsalfalfacorn
44 INDUSTRIAL GROWTH and URBAN DEVELOPMENT The impact of humans on the biosphere wastransformed by the_____________________during the 1800’s.INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
45 Industrial productivity and scientific advancements have provided us withthe ______________________ we enjoy todaymodern conveniences
46 Loss of forests = ____________ FOREST RESOURCESLoss of forests = ____________can result in erosion and loss of nutrients preventing regrowthdeforestation
47 DEFORESTATIONChanges in Brazilian rainforest over 30 yearsThe tropical rainforests once covered more than 14% of the earth's total land surface,but now cover less than 6%.
48 HABITAT DESTRUCTION Tropical rainforests are disappearing Tropical rainforests are disappearingat a rate of about 80 acres per minute.
49 BIODIVERSITY THREATNearly half of the world's species of plants, animals and microorganisms will be destroyed or severely threatened over the next quarter century due to ____________________________rainforest deforestation.
50 HOW DO WE HELP?Sustainable development:Stop clear cutting of forests/junglesSelective harvest of mature treesReplanting of logged areasTree farmsBreeding new, faster growing species
51 WHAT’S THE PROBLEM? Destruction of habitats Air & water pollution Use of resourcesUses lots of fossil fuelAll lead to a decrease in_______________BIODIVERSITY
52 Scientists estimate there are 10-30 million Image from:Scientists estimate there are millionplant and animal species on the planetMost of these are unidentified.Some scientists estimateat the rate we are going___ of the plants and animalswill be committed to extinction by 20501/4
53 Officially over 5,000 species of Image from:Officially over 5,000 species ofanimals and birds are listed as Endangered or Threatened on our planetBelieved that some 10,000 species have gone extinct in just the past 100 years
54 BIODIVERSITY THREAT habitat destruction Development of natural areas for cities oragriculture results in ____________________habitat destruction
55 BIODIVERSITY THREAT Habitat fragmentation Splitting a habitat into smaller disconnected pieces = _____________________It results in small “islands”of natural area isolatedfrom each other by cropland, pasture, pavement,or even barren land.Habitat fragmentation
56 BIODIVERSITY THREAT Habitat fragmentation brings wildlife in more frequent contact with humans.When it comesdown to“us or them” . . .“they” usually lose.
58 BIODIVERSITY THREAT INVASIVE SPECIES PREDATORS INCREASE One of most important threats tobiodiversity come from apparently harmlessplants or animals that humans transport into new habitats =____________________New habitats don’t have ____________and parasites that control the populationin their native habitats, so invasive speciespopulations _____________ rapidly.INVASIVE SPECIESPREDATORSINCREASE
59 EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES 24 rabbits turned loose forhunting in 1859 in Australia,reproduced at such a rapid rate they have taken overthe continent.Within 10 years they hadmultiplied so rapidly, 2 millionrabbits a year could be shot or trapped without any noticeable effect on population.
60 EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES They are believed to beresponsible for the___________ of 1/8 ofthe mammal species,unknown numbers of plantspecies, as well as serious_____________ problems.It is still a major problem and rabbit diseases have been purposely introduced to try to control the population.extinctionsoil erosion
61 EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES Zebra mussels_________________ are native to the Caspian Sea region of Asia. They are believed to have been transported to the Great Lakes in the ballast water from a ship.They were first discovered in 1988, and have since spread rapidly to all of the Great Lakesand waterways in manystates including_______________________and into Canada.SOUTH DAKOTA
62 PROBLEMS CAUSED BY ZEBRA MUSSELS Clog power plant and public water intakes and pipes, costing taxpayers millions of dollars · Damage boat engines · Blanket shorelines with their sharp shells and foul smell · Consume available food fornative species and smothernative mussels · Threaten water-basedrecreational activities
63 EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES LEAFY SPURGE__________________ is native to Europe and Asia and first appeared in Massachusetts in 1827.Across _____________ and much of the Great Plains, leafy spurge is one of the most threatening invasive plants, ____________ out native grassland and damaging ___________________.South Dakotacrowdinggrazing land
64 EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES 302,000 acres inSouth Dakota are infested withLEAFY SPURGE.According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture,leafy spurge infestations in the Dakotas, Montanaand Wyoming alone cost agricultural producersand taxpayers at least $144 million annually inproduction losses, control expenses andother impacts to the economy .
65 BIODIVERSITY THREAT pollutants The addition of ________________ = harmful materials that can enter the biosphere through land, water or air can also threaten biodiversity.
66 AIR RESOURCES Pollutant smog ___________ = harmful material that can enter the biosphere through land, air, or water________ = Mixture of chemicals that appear as a gray-brown haze in the atmospheresmog
67 AIR RESOURCES fossil fuels Burning __________ releases pollutants that cause smog and other problemsin atmosphere.Toxic chemicalslike nitrates, sulfates, and particulates can cause ________________like ___________fossil fuelsbreathing problemsasthma
68 _____ was first modern insecticide Example:_____ was first modern insecticideIt was cheap, stayed active for long time, and kills many different insectsUsed to control agriculture pestsand disease carrying_______________DDTMOSQUITOES
69 drained into rivers and streams at LOW concentrations. When DDT was sprayed, itdrained into rivers andstreams at LOWconcentrations.
70 doesn’t ______________. food chain tissues degrade DDT in the environment gets into organisms through the ___________, is stored in __________, anddoesn’t ______________.food chaintissuesdegrade
71 → → BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION ______________________________ = the ____________ of a harmful substance____________as it passes to organisms at_______________levels in food chain or web.concentrationincreaseshigher trophicPlants pick upDDT from water& store itHerbivores eatplants and store some DDTCarnivores eatherbivores and store more DDT→→
73 The wide spread use of DDT threatened many species… especially fish eating birds like osprey, brown pelican, andbald eagles.DDT causes birds to layeggs with ___________shells so eggs wouldbreak when sat on.American Bald Eagle was declaredendangered in It has since beenreclassified as _____________________fragile“threatened”
74 told of DDT’s harmful effects. In 1962, American biologist _______________ published the book,_____________ whichtold of DDT’s harmful effects.The book led to a large public outcry and eventually resulted in DDT being _________ in the United States in the 1970’sThe book was one of the important events in the birth of the _________________________.Rachel CarsonSilent Springbannedenvironmental movement
75 HOW DO WE HELP ? Smokestack “Scrubbers” can control emissions Auto emission standardsClean air regulationsReduce use of fossil fuels
76 FRESH WATER RESOURCES Americans use BILLIONS of gallons of freshwater daily for ________, ________and ___________________drinkingwashingwatering crops
77 DON’T FORGET THE _________________ Water used to make products that we don’t think or know about “INVISIBLE WATER”The PRODUCTION OF:1 kg wheat costs 1,300 L waterkg rice costs 3,400 L water1 kg eggs costs 3,300 L water1 kg beef costs 15,000 L water1 cotton shirt costs 2,500 L water1000 g of blue jeans costs 10,850 liters water1 ton passenger car costs 400,000 liters of waterBuilding a house uses about 6 million liters of waterVIDEO
78 HOW DO WE HELP ? Water conservation Protect wetlands and forests Water treatment plantsClean water regulationshhttp://
80 THE BIG QUESTION ?Human activities affect ________________ like land, forests, air, fresh water.How can we provide for our needswithout using up all resources?_____________________________renewable resources= SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT~ Use natural resources without using them up~ Provide for human needs WITHOUT causing long term environmental harm
81 CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY Wise management of natural resources =__________________Protecting endangered species requiresdetailed information about ecological _________________We can’t protect a species without understanding how it ____________ with the _________________.conservationrelationshipsinteractsecosystem
83 WHAT CAN BE DONE? Urban planning so there is less “ Sprawl” Set aside land for parks/preservesResearch to understand species/ecosystem interactionsConcentration of $ on “HOT SPOTS”to maximize results for$ spent
84 HUMAN IMPACT on the BIOSPHERE Chapter 6-4 Charting a course for the Future
85 BIG ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS DEAD ZONES___________________OZONE DEPLETIONACID RAINGLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGEWASTE
86 DEAD ZONES When an ecosystem receives a LARGE input REMEMBER !When an ecosystem receives a LARGE inputof limiting nutrient (ie., fertilizer runoff) thepopulation increases dramatically = ___________ALGAL BLOOM
90 Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone The DEADZONE forms each April, generally growsthroughout the summer, reaching a peak in late July.
91 Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone At its peak, the nearly lifeless water can span5,000 to 8,000-plus square miles, an area almost the size of New Jersey
92 DEAD ZONES How do we HELP? Use modern technology and“green” farming methods to:Decrease agricultural fertilizer useDecrease runoff of agricultural waste
93 OZONE LAYER Our atmosphere between 20-50 km contains OZONE LAYEROur atmosphere between20-50 km containshigh concentrationsof ____________which protect us fromthe sun’s harmful______________ radiation.OZONE (O3)ultra-violet
94 EFFECTS OF UV RADIATION Skin cancer__________________________________________________________ of skinReduces ________________Disrupts __________________ in oceansPremature agingCataracts/blindnesscrop yieldfood chainsClick here to see a movieabout the effects of UV radiationWMV, 618K
95 Click here to see a movie WHAT WE KNOWScientists have beenmonitoring the ____________of ozone in our atmosphereand have discovereda hole in the ozone layerover ____________.depletionAntarcticaClick here to see a movieabout the ozone holeWMV, 616K
96 The annual ozone "hole“ over Antarctica has occurred during the Antarctic Spring (October)since the early 1980s.Rather than being an actual holethrough the layer, the ozonehole is a large areawith extremelylow amounts of ozone.Ozone levels fall by over60% during the worst years.
97 Ozone depletion is a global issue NOT just a problem at the South Pole.Research has shown that ozone depletionalso occurs over North America, Europe,Asia, and much of Africa, Australia, andSouth America.Over the U.S., ozone levels have fallen 5-10%, depending on the season.
98 What’s the cause of Ozone Depletion? Chlorofluorocarbonmolecules _______released fromair conditioners,aerosol spray cans,fire extinguishers,and industry________________(CFC’s)destroy ozone
99 OZONE DEPLETION MONTREAL PROTOCOL HOW DO WE HELP?1987- the _______________________ committed signing nations (including USA) to a ____________ in the use of CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances.CFC production was _________ after 1995 in the developed countries, and later in developing countries. Today, over 180 countries have ratified the treaty.MONTREAL PROTOCOLREDUCTIONbanned
100 THAT’S WHY . . . AEROSOL _____________spray cans no longer contain _____________spray cansno longer containCFC propellants.Gases in ___________________and _____________ are collectedand recycled.AIR CONDITIONERSrefrigerators
101 OZONE DEPLETION How do we help? We can't make enough ozone to replace what's been destroyed, but provided that we stop producing ozone-depleting substances, computer models predict natural ozone production reactions should return the ozone layer to normal levels by about 2050.This is the first example of different countriesgetting together on an environmental issue,agreeing on what to do, doing something,and seeing a positive effect
102 Chemical Transformation Emissions to Atmosphere ACID RAINWhat’s the cause?________________________BURNING FOSSIL FUELSChemical TransformationNitric acidSulfuric acidCondensationEmissions to AtmosphereNitrogen oxidesSulfur dioxideDry FalloutPrecipitationAcid rain, fog,snow, and mistparticulates, gasesIndustryTransportationOre smeltingPower generationNitrogen oxidesSulfur oxidesReleases _______________ and ________________into the atmosphere that react with water to produce ACID RAIN.
104 ACID RAIN EFFECTS damages buildings and statues damages forests kills fishreduces biodiversitycauses illness & premature death from heart & lung disorders like asthma and bronchitis
105 ACID RAINHOW DO WE HELP?Develop a National energy policy that emphasizes use of alternative renewable energy sourcesCut down on activities that use fossil fuels~ conserve electricity~ drive lessDrive automobiles with increased fuel efficiencyOR run on alternative fuelsRecycle(uses less energy than starting from scratch)
106 GREENHOUSE EFFECT Temperatures of Earth remain within a range ______________ because the _____________acts as a natural _________________ blanket.suitable for lifeatmosphereinsulating
107 GREENHOUSE EFFECT Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) methane water vapor CFC’s Atmospheric gases such as___________________NORMALLY trap heatenergy from the sunlike a greenhouse= _____________________Carbon dioxide (CO2 )methanewater vaporCFC’sGreenhouse effect
108 GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE- Is it real? Some people say that the Earth has cycles of warmer/cooler climate change and that this is just part of that cycle.Most scientists believe that the increase in global temperatures is the result of human activities that have increased the amount of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
109 1. "warming of the climate system is unequivocal“ In 2007 in Paris a U.N.- backed panel of international scientists issued a major announcement on climate change stating that:1. "warming of the climate system is unequivocal“2. There is a 90% probability the cause “man- made”.Either way… our planet is getting warmer!
110 FACTS WE KNOWGlobal mean surface temperatures have increased °F since the late 19th century.The 20th century's ten warmest years haveoccurred in the last 15 years of this century.
111 FACTS WE KNOWThe snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere and floating ice in the Arctic Ocean have decreased.Graph & glacier pix: polar bears:
112 FACTS WE KNOW Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have increased steadily.
113 GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE WHAT’S the CAUSE? Burning solid waste, fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), wood and wood productsProduction and transport of fossil fuelsDecomposition of organic wastes in landfillsAnimal sources (methane)Deforestation (trees remove CO2 from atmosphere)
114 What’s so bad about warming up a little? We’re freezing here!
115 Coastal flooding What’s so bad about warming up a little? Cartoon from Brookings RegisterCoastal flooding
116 Changes in Gulf Stream What’s so bad about warming up a little? What’s so bad about warming up a little?Changes inGulf Stream
117 More severe storms What’s so bad about warming up a little? More severe storms
118 Weather extremes What’s so bad about warming up a little? Heat waves and droughtBrookings Register
119 Changing habitats means loss of species What’s so bad about warming up a little?Changing habitatsmeansloss of species
120 What’s the Kyoto Accord? International agreement signed in 1997Aimed at reducing global warmingParticipants asked to _______ their ________________ emissions to a percentage below 1990 emission levelsSet binding targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for countries to reach ___________37 industrialized countries (includes US)which make almost 65% of greenhouse gases (GHG) were to decrease to ~ 5% less than levels (US target = 7%)REDUCEGREENHOUSE GASby 2012
121 PROBLEMS WITH KYOTO ACCORD ALL countries not required to reduce emissions equally7% for the US, 6% for Japan, 0% for Russia,Developing nations didn’t have to reduce emissions at allIndia and China, which have ratified the protocol,are not required to reduce carbon emissions underthe present agreement despite their relatively large populations.Developed nations (like USA) could meet required reductions by purchasing emission reductions from elsewhere and funding developing countries for climate related studies, projects, and technology
122 KYOTO is “OLD NEWS”!UNITED STATESThe ________________ is the only major industrial country that did NOT signed the Kyoto Accord.Met in December Copenhagen, Denmark
123 Current StatusOBJECTIVE: to keep the maximum temperature rise to below 2 degrees Celsius;the commitment to new reduction targets by developing countries for 2020Proposed $ 30 billion short-term funding for immediate action till 2012 and $100 billion annually by 2020 in long-term financing (still needs to be approved by countries)The challenge now is to turn what is agreed into something that is legally binding
124 WHAT NEXT?Some developed countries have already declared that they will not continue to follow commitments to reduce emissionsdeveloping countries have increased their carbon emissions by 130% or moreDelegates from nearly 200 countries have met several times for major climate talks, but no new agreement has been reached.They have just agreed to “talk about it”Some countries say no deal will be in place until at least 2020.
125 What is a CARBON FOOTPRINT? What is a CARBON FOOTPRINT?A ____________________ =the total set of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions caused directly and indirectly by an individual, organization, event or productCARBON FOOTPRINT
126 The US is no longer the #1 CO2 emitter but we contribute to the problem.
127 Even if you don’t “believe” in global warming . . . Even if you don’t “believe” in global warming . . .Even if countries can’t agree on emission levels …we should still work to reduce our emissions of global warming gases BECAUSE . . .
128 THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway!Fossil fuels are a limited resource…eventually they will be gone!
129 THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! Our supply of fossil fuels is dependent oncountries that are not “friendly” to the U.S.
130 THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! Brookings Register March 2012Our supply of fossil fuels is dependent oncountries that are not “friendly” to the U.S.
131 THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! Brookings RegisterDrilling for and transporting fossil fuels has negative environmental consequences
132 THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! Drilling and transporting fossil fuels has negativeenvironmental consequencesBrookings Register
133 THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! HOW QUICKLYWE FORGET!BP oil spill in Gulf 2011Drilling and transporting fossil fuels has negativeenvironmental consequencesBrookings Register
134 THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! Images from:Innovation and alternative energy technologies for automobiles and power generation are good for our economy
135 BAD BEST! REALLY BAD THINK ABOUT IT Scientists are RIGHT about man-made global warmingScientists are WRONG about man-made global warmingWE KEEP DOING WHAT WE ARE DOING- NOTHING!Environmental Disaster Consequences too awful to think aboutStill have other problemsassociated with fossil fuel use: pollution/acid rain/dependence on our enemiesWE WORK TO GET OFF FOSSIL FUELSCHANGES HELP TURN THINGSAROUND + solveother fossil fuelproblems-Solves other problemsassociated withfossil fuel useREALLY BADBADBEST!GOOD!
136 HOW DO WE HELP? Develop a National energy policy that emphasizes use of alternative renewable energy sources
137 GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE HOW DO WE HELP? Watch your carbon footprint Cut down on activities that use fossil fuelsDrive automobiles with increased fuel efficiencyOR run on alternative fuelsCut down on CO2 emissions(with or without the Kyoto accord)Recycle(uses less energy than starting from scratch)Reduce deforestation (plants use CO2)
138 WHAT DO WE DO WITH OUR TRASH? According to theEnvironmental Protection Agency,the average American producesabout 4.4 pounds of garbage a day.That adds up to a approximately220 million tons of garbage eachyear for all of us.This only takes into considerationthe average household memberand does not count industrial wasteor commercial trash.
139 PICTURE THIS:It would bury more than 990,000 football fields under six-foot high piles of waste... . . and that’s just the United States!
140 TRASH KILLS It has been estimated that over a million sea-birds and 100,000marine mammals and sea turtlesare killed each year by ingestionof plastics or entanglement.
141 PLASTIC IS FOREVER! PLASTIC IS MADE FROM FOSSIL FUELS! PLASTIC IS FOREVER!
142 PACIFIC OCEAN GARBAGE GYRE PACIFIC OCEAN GARBAGE GYRECovers an area twice the size of TEXASEstimated to contain over 100 million tons of debrisTwo linked areas on either side Hawaiian islandsWestern and Eastern Pacific Garbage Patches
143 Why is the world's biggest landfill in the Pacific Ocean? See a video
144 We Can’t Just Keep Piling it up in Landfills Plastic recycling videoWe have to REDUCE, REUSE, RECYCLE
145 QUOTES This we know... the earth does not belong to man, man belongs to earth. All things are connected,like the blood which connects one family.Whatever befalls the earth befalls the children ofthe earth. Man did not weave the web of life –he is merely a strand in it. Whatever he does tothe web, he does to himself.~ Chief Seattle, 1854
146 If you want to see an endangered species, get up and look in the mirror. ~ John Young, former Apollo astronautA true conservationist is a man who knows that the world is not given by his fathers, but borrowed from his children. ~ John James Audubon,It's not easy being green. ~ Kermit the FrogUnless someone like you cares a whole awful lot, Nothing is going to get better. It's not ~ Dr. Seuss, The Lorax
147 WE NEED TO START CONSIDERING THE EFFECTS ON OUR PLANET WHEN WE MAKE DECISIONS!
150 Core High School Nature of Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level:given a scientific discovery, evaluate how different societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the investigation and its interpretation;High school students performing at thePROFICIENT level:given a scientific discovery narrative, determine and describe how societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the investigation and its interpretation;High school students performing at the BASIC level:describe the role of observation in the development of hypotheses, theories, and laws and conduct student investigations;given a scientific discovery narrative, identify the cultural and personal beliefs that influenced the investigation.
151 Core High School Life/Earth Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level:predict the effect of an interruption in a given cycles;predict how human activity may change the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth.High school students performing at thePROFICIENT level:predict how life systems respond to changes in the environment;describe how various factors may affect global climate;explain how human activity changes the land, ocean, and atmosphere of EarthHigh school students performing at the BASIC level:describe one factor that may affect global climate;give an example of human activity that changes the land, ocean, or atmosphere of Earth
152 Core High School Technology, Environment, Society Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level:modify a technology taking into consideration limiting factors of design;given a narrative of a scientific discovery, defend a position on the impact of the ethical issues.High school students performing at thePROFICIENT level:given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify and evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of scientific issuesevaluate factors that could limit technological design;given a narrative description of a resource, analyze and describe the benefits, limitations, cost, and consequences involved in its use, conservation, or recyclingHigh school students performing at the BASIC level:given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify the immediate consequences of scientific issues;identify ethical roles and responsibilities concerning a given research project;identify factors that could limit technological design;given a narrative description of a resource, describe a benefit and limitation involved in its use, conservation, or recycling.
153 Core High School Nature of Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level:given a scientific discovery, evaluate how different societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the investigation and its interpretation;High school students performing at thePROFICIENT level:given a scientific discovery narrative, determine and describe how societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the investigation and its interpretation;High school students performing at the BASIC level:describe the role of observation in the development of hypotheses, theories, and laws and conduct student investigations;given a scientific discovery narrative, identify the cultural and personal beliefs that influenced the investigation.
154 Core High School Life/Earth Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level:predict the effect of an interruption in a given cycles;predict how human activity may change the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth.High school students performing at thePROFICIENT level:predict how life systems respond to changes in the environment;describe how various factors may affect global climate;explain how human activity changes the land, ocean, and atmosphere of EarthHigh school students performing at the BASIC level:describe one factor that may affect global climate;give an example of human activity that changes the land, ocean, or atmosphere of Earth
155 Core High School Technology, Environment, Society Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level:modify a technology taking into consideration limiting factors of design;given a narrative of a scientific discovery, defend a position on the impact of the ethical issues.High school students performing at thePROFICIENT level:given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify and evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of scientific issuesevaluate factors that could limit technological design;given a narrative description of a resource, analyze and describe the benefits, limitations, cost, and consequences involved in its use, conservation, or recyclingHigh school students performing at the BASIC level:given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify the immediate consequences of scientific issues;identify ethical roles and responsibilities concerning a given research project;identify factors that could limit technological design;given a narrative description of a resource, describe a benefit and limitation involved in its use, conservation, or recycling.