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1 KiVa TM Antibullying Program Christina Salmivalli and Virpi Pöyhönen University of Turku, Finland Pre-implementation training in Wales, May 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "1 KiVa TM Antibullying Program Christina Salmivalli and Virpi Pöyhönen University of Turku, Finland Pre-implementation training in Wales, May 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 KiVa TM Antibullying Program Christina Salmivalli and Virpi Pöyhönen University of Turku, Finland Pre-implementation training in Wales, May 2012

2 Todays topics Bullying and the peer group KiVa antibullying program –Overview –Universal actions –Indicated actions –Getting started with KiVa –Evidence of effectiveness 2

3 3 Bullying Bullying: repeated aggressive behavior against a person who finds it difficult to defend him/herself against the perpetrator(s) –takes numerous forms often verbal abuse, public ridicule

4 Bullying Rather than consisting of single attacks, bullying represents a rather stable relationship further embedded in the larger peer setting Universal phenomenon; about 10% of children and adolescents worldwide are systematic victims WHO survey in 2010: –Finland: 11/13% victims among the 11-year-old –Wales: 10/10% victims among the 11-year-old 4

5 5 Finland: Being bullied, % Spring 2009, N >

6 6 Finland: Bullied others, % Spring 2009, N >

7 7 Teachers can do much or very much to decrease bullying, % respondents

8 Why is bullying such a persistent problem? Bullying as proactive, goal-oriented aggression What is the function of bullying? 8

9 9 The social architecture of bullying Bullying can be a strategy to gain status and power in the peer group... …and it is often succesful bullies are perceived as popular (Caravita, DiBlasio, & Salmivalli, 2008) bullying helps to maintain status (Juvonen & Galvan, 2008)… …and to increase status over time (Cillessen & Borch, 2004)

10 10 By choosing victims who are submissive, insecure of themselves, physically weak and in a low-power, rejected position in the group the bullies can repeatedly demonstrate their power and renew their high-status position without being confronted The social architecture of bullying

11 11 The power demonstrations need witnesses –in most bullying incidents, a group of peers is present The social architecture of bullying

12 12 defenders of the victim outsiders assistants of the bully victim reinforcers of the bully 12% 8% 20% 7% 17% 24% bully Participant roles in bullying (Salmivalli et al., 1996) The social architecture of bullying

13 13 The behavior of onlookers does matter Individual effects: short term –the defended victims are better adjusted than the undefended ones (Sainio, Veenstra, Huitsing, & Salmivalli, 2010) Individual effects: long term –the most negative memory related to bullying is often no-one cared (Teräsahjo & Salmivalli, 2000)

14 14 The behavior of onlookers does matter Classroom level: –The likelihood of victimization is higher in classrooms where reinforcing the bully is occurring at high levels (Salmivalli, Voeten & Poskiparta, 2011) –Individual-level risk factors, such as anxiety, are more likely to lead to victimization in classrooms where reinforcing is common, whereas high levels of defending minimize the effects of such risk factors (Kärnä, Voeten, Poskiparta, & Salmivalli, 2010)

15 15 In order to reduce bullying... We do not necessarily need to change the victims, making them less vulnerable Influencing the behavior of bystanders can reduce the rewards gained by the bullies and consequently, their motivation to bully in the first place However, the victims need to feel that they are heard and helped by the adults at school The bullies need to be confronted for their unacceptable behavior

16 16 An anti-bullying program should include......something for all students universal actions...something for bullies and victims in particular indicated actions

17 17 KiVa antibullying program School-based program for bullying prevention and intervention The meaning of KiVa Developed at the University of Turku with funding from the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture –Program co-leaders: Professor Christina Salmivalli and PhD Elisa Poskiparta In Finland, used by 90% of schools providing comprehensive education (basic education, grades 1-9)

18 18 Goals of KiVa Preventing bullying Effective tackling of bullying coming to attention at school Minimizing the negative effects of bullying

19 19 KiVa program Special characteristics: –Both universal and indicated actions –An exceptionally large amount of materials & concrete tools (not merely a philosophy) –Utilizing virtual learning environments –Influencing the whole group KiVa is more systematic than most existing anti-bullying programs

20 Precondition for implementing KiVa succesfully: School commitment Staff meeting –Information to everyone –Implementation plan –People in charge (e.g., KiVa team) 20

21 KiVa antibullying program Universal actions Student lessons Computer game Parents guide and back- to-school night Posters, vests Annual surveys –students –staff Indicated actions Tackling the cases coming to attention –KiVa team –classroom teacher 21

22 Universal actions – student lessons and computer game Three units, appropriate for different grade levels/students of different ages: Unit 1, Unit 2, Unit 3 –Unit 2 student lessons piloted in Wales: Ten double lessons (2x45 min) during the school year Target age group 9-11 years 22

23 23 The aims of stundent lessons and computer game Enhancing... awareness of the role bystanders play in the bullying process empathic understanding of the victims plight Providing... safe strategies to support and defend the victimized peers self-efficacy for defending

24 24

25 Teachers manual includes three parts 1.Key to the KiVa antibullying program –Kiva in a nutshell 2.Universal actions –Overview of universal actions –Student lessons 3.Indicated actions –Tackling acute cases of bullying 25

26 26 Teachers manual – student lessons

27 The topics of Unit 2 student lessons Grade 4 1. Respect is for everybody 2. In a group 3. Recognize bullying 4. Hidden forms of bullying 5. Consequences of bullying 6. Group involvement in bullying 7. Countering bullying as a group 8. What to do if I get bullied? 9. KiVa School – lets do it together! 10. How are we doing? 27

28 Class KiVa rules At the end of each lesson Emphasizes the most important aspect of the lesson 28

29 29 Activities included in student lessons

30 30 –Repeating & testing of what has been learnt during the lessons – I KNOW –Learning to take action – I CAN Students go around in a virtual school and come to challenging situations (being bystanders of bullying) where they have to decide what to say and do –Motivation – I DO Students reflect on their own behavior (how they have done with following the KiVa rules) and get feedback KiVa games and KiVa Street are closely connected to student lessons

31 31 KiVa computer game; Unit 2

32 32 MonthStudent lessonComputer game AugustLesson 1 SeptemberLesson 2 OctoberLesson 3Level 1 NovemberLesson 4 DecLesson 5Level 2 JanLesson 6 FebLesson 7Level 3 MarLesson 8Level 4 AprLesson 9 MayLesson 10Level 5 A recommended schedule; Unit 2

33 How to find time for student lessons? Example: Finland Discussion: Wales 33

34 Two examples 34 MonthStudent lessonComputer game AugustLesson 1 SeptemberLesson 2 OctoberLesson 3Level 1 (Recognize bullying) NovemberLesson 4 DecLesson 5Level 2 JanLesson 6 FebLesson 7Level 3 (Countering bullying as a group) MarLesson 8Level 4 AprLesson 9 MayLesson 10Level 5

35 Parents involvement Information leaflet for parents (kivaprogram.net/walesmaterial) –Print and send to each home Parents guide (in electronic format) Back-to-school night –presentation graphics available 35

36 36 To remind about KiVa... Posters Highly visible vests for recess supervisors (in Finland, teachers)

37 Getting to know the material Working in pairs/ small groups –One student lesson for each group Familiarize yourselves briefly with the content of lesson Plan a lesson –Which activities would you include? Pick the activity that interests you the most 37

38 Indicated actions: tackling the cases of bullying coming to attention 38

39 39 KiVa team Three or more adults from among the school personnel, for instance : –a principal, a teacher, a school social worker –2 X teacher, a special education tacher –a principal, a teacher, a school nurse

40 40 The role of the KiVa team Tackling cases of repeated bullying in collaboration with the classroom teacher Documenting bullying cases KiVa-team is NOT a solution to all problems at school !

41 41 Which cases should be directed to KiVa team? SCREENING based on the definition of bullying Cases not directed to the team (e.g., a conflict or fight between students): treatment as usual Cases directed to the team –A procedure with several steps

42 Which cases are directed to the KiVa team? Main criteria: –is this offensive/abusive? –is this repeated, or is there a fear of repetition? –The form of bullying (whether physical, verbal, indirect, cyber) is NOT relevant for making the decision (pp in the teachers manual) 42

43 Finnish evaluation of KiVa ( ) SCREENING: An average of 9,24 cases/school, range 1-55 (!) 60.5% of these cases were directed to KiVa team, an average of 5,6 cases/school Other cases were typically –Fight or argument 59% –Misunderstanding 11% –Single aggressive incident 30%

44 When reported to school personnel FrequencyPercentValid%Cumulative% August September October November December January February March April May Total Reports to schools every month; most of them in September-October

45 60,5% 39,5% The procedure for tackling the cases of bullying coming to attention (p. 135 in Teachers manual)

46 Case John: screening The mother of 11-yearl-old John calls the classroom teacher: Two boys from the same class have been calling John names and pushing him around, mainly during recess time but also in way to and from school. Last week the boys had taken Johns shoes after the PE class – he had finally found them in the trash bin. John told the mother that this treatment has been going on since the beginning of school year (2 months) and even yesterday the boys had been calling him with nasty names. The teacher tells that this sounds as systematic bullying which will be tackled by the schools KiVa team. During /after the phone call the teacher fills in the screening form (Form 1). 46

47 1. Meeting with John One KiVa team member and John 47

48 Important: - Support for John!! - Concrete information of what has happened, when, where, by whom - Some kids who have not been involved

49 2. Classroom teacher meets 2-3 classmates During/after the meeting with John, the team member fills in the form 2 and informs the classroom teacher about the meeting and about the kids John has mentioned as nice / not involved in bullying him 49

50 John is having a difficult time I believe you might be able to support him

51 3. KiVa team meets the perpetrator(s) of bullying Two different approaches: –Confronting You have been bullying John and that has to stop –Nonconfronting John seems to be having a hard time at school, he must be feeling bad 51

52 Confronting and nonconfronting approaches Confronting –E.g., Olweus view about intervening in bullying Making it clear that the child has misbehaved – need to change Nonconfronting –Pikas: The method of shared concern; Maines & Robinson: No blame approach Creating a shared concern of the child who has been bullied; blaming the bully/ies not necessary 52

53 Confronting approach (C) We know that you have been involved in bullying John for quite some time. He has been called nasty names and pushed around, and his belongings have been taken. This must stop immediately. GOAL 1: To make it clear that adults know about the bullying and do not tolerate it. What are you going to do about this? GOAL 2: To make the child committed to changing his/her behavior Okay, this sounds good. Well meet again next week and see how it has been going GOAL 3: To make it clear that the situation is being followed 53

54 Nonconfronting approach (NC) We are really concerned about your classmate John who has been bullied. He has been called nasty names and pushed around, and his belongings have been taken. He must feel bad dont you think? GOAL 1: Shared understanding that John is not feeling well Is there anything you could do about it? GOAL 2: To make the child suggest some way(s) to make John feel better Okay that sounds great. Try that, and well meet again in a week and hear how it has been going GOAL 3: To make it clear that the situation is being followed 54

55 Confronting and nonconfronting approaches Common to both: –Discussions are short –Stick to the point – remember the main goals! 55

56 Case John: Meeting with the perpetrators of bullying (confronting) 56

57 Goals, C: 1.To make it clear that adults know about the bullying and do not tolerate it. 2. To make the child committed to changing his/her behavior 3. To make it clear that the situation is being followed

58

59 Case John: Meeting with the perpetrators of bullying (nonconfronting) 59

60 Goals, NC: GOAL 1: Shared understanding that John is not feeling well 2. To make the child suggest some way(s) to make John feel better 3. To make it clear that the situation is being followed

61

62 Case John: Follow-up with John 62

63

64 Case John: Follow-up with the perpetrators of bullying In the Finnish evaluation study, the bullied student participated in the meeting in 30% of the cases 64

65

66 Which approach to choose? Confronting or nonconfronting? Which one is closer to my previous approach? Which one feels better at the moment? 66

67 The two approaches NONCONFRONTING Bullying –Stopped 74.9% –Decreased 22.3% –Remained the same 2.2% –Increased 0.6% CONFRONTING Bullying –Stopped 83.5% –Decreased 14.9% –Remained the same 1.5% –Increased 0% 67 IN PRIMARY SCHOOL GRADES, NO DIFFERENCE IN EFFECTIVENESS

68 Comparing the two approaches: The proportion of cases in which bullying had stopped completely

69 Virtual mailbox in the KiVa computer game –Making reporting more likely –School must activate the mailbox addresses of KiVa team members 69

70 Mailbox in the KiVa computer game

71 Getting started with KiVa 71

72 Getting started with KiVa Registration (until end of May, 2012) Staff meeting –Information for everyone –Implementation plan –People in charge (e.g., KiVa team members) Student survey (June 2012) Kick-off for the students (beginning of school year in the fall) Collaboration with parents –information leaflets (fall 2012) –back-to-school night (fall 2012) 72

73 Registration Go to website kivaprogram.net/wales/registration/ Fill in the registration form and submit it –Only one registration per school!!! You get an confirmation of the schools registration 73

74 74 Web-based material Once registered, each school gets (in the confirmation ) school username and staff password In addition, each school gets a student password for the student survey & computer game

75 Annual survey To be filled in during June 2012 (and again in June 2013) –On the left: surveys –Students log in with the school username and student password All students in the school can respond –Bullying others and being bullied; bullying-related attitudes; school liking; perception of teachers Automatic feedback to each school 75

76 76 Other web-based material kivaprogram.net/wales/ –open and restricted areas –access to the restricted area only for registered schools (click the login button) –You need school username and staff password to log in

77 Restricted area in the website Presentation graphics for... –student lessons –staff meeting –back-to-school night All materials –student lessons –short films –information leaflet for parents –parents guide (in electronic format) –Forms to document bullying cases 77

78 78 Staff meeting To be remembered: –A common definition of bullying –KiVa program –Choosing the KiVa team –Screening & directing cases to the KiVa team –Collaboration with parents –kick-off for students

79 79 KICK-OFF All students are informed about KiVa right in the beginning of the school year Main message: Our school is a KiVa school where bullying is not tolerated –Lessons for grade X students –KiVa team

80 80 Informing the parents Information leaflets (kivaprogram.net/wales/) material –Send to each home in the beginning of the school year Parents guide (electronic format) Back-to-school night –Presentation graphics: –Home-school collaboration –Results from the schools student survey

81 Evidence of effectiveness 81

82 Evaluation of KiVa The effects of KiVa have been tested –under the evaluation period (> students from 234 schools) Bullying, being bullied Self- and peer-reports, dyadic data Participant role behaviors Attitudes,empathy, self-efficacy School adjustment –under large-scale diffusion (> students) Basic variables, e.g. bullying, being bullied 82

83 Changes in being bullied by different forms during one school year: RCT, grades 4 to 6

84 Changes ; primary schools 84

85 Changes ; secondary schools 85

86 Conclusion KiVa is effective in reducing bullying and victimization The effects vary across grade levels, being strongest in grade four (10-11 years) 86

87 Besides the effects on bullying and victimization... Decreases in reinforcing the bully Increases in empathy toward victimized peers & self-efficacy to support them Increases in school liking and academic motivation Decreases in depression, anxiety, and negative peer perceptions Among teachers, increased efficacy to reduce bullying 87

88 Comparison of two approcahes to tackle bullying No Blame vs. Confronting approach During the evaluation study of KiVa, half of the intervention schools were instructed to use C while the other half got instructions to use NC when discussing with the bully(-ies) 88

89 Effectiveness of the indicated actions The proportion of cases handled by the school team in which bullying... –Stopped completely79.4% –Decreased18.5% –Remained the same 1.9% –Increased 0.3% 89 IN PRIMARY SCHOOL GRADES, NO DIFFERENCE IN EFFECTIVENESS

90 90


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