Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Unit 7 Africa.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Unit 7 Africa."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 7 Africa

2 Physical Features Most of Africa is considered a plateau
Basins within the plateau collect water creating river systems and waterfalls A large number of African nations are landlocked with no access to an ocean

3 Rivers The Nile is the longest river system The Congo, Niger, and Zambezi river systems are also very important to the vitality of this continent Most rivers contain waterfall systems and rapids which make it hard to use these rivers for transportation The coastline of Africa is relatively smooth and has few point of access which are good for shipping ports

4 Rift Valleys These rift valleys were formed by splits in the continental plates from earthquakes The largest of these valleys is the Great Rift Valley which is 3500 miles long and stretches from the Middle East to Mozambique

5 Most lakes are located in the rift valleys
Lake Tanganyika and Lake Victoria are the largest lakes in Africa

6 There are few mountain systems in Africa
The Atlas Mts. are located in the N.W. and split the coast from the desert Mount Kenya and Mount Kilamanjaro are volcanoes located in the East

7 Savannas and Rainforest
Nearly half of Africa is a tropical savanna which includes the Serengeti in the east and the Sahel in the north Most of the central Africa is rainforest

8 Resources There are an abundance of natural resources in Africa, but there is little money to develop those resources Africa has a storehouse of mineral wealth including gold, platinum, copper, and diamonds Most of the resources were exploited by the Europeans during the 1800’s Oil is a valuable resource in the nations of Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, and Angola, but the money is spent to fund wars in the region Coffee, lumber, and cocoa are important crops for this region

9 2/3 of the African population farm for a living using outdate equipment
The land areas that are not dry are located in rainforest vegetation zones, and the soil there is of limited fertility These people can not afford fertilizers and products to make the soil fertile so farming here is limited

10 Climate The equator runs through the middle of the continent which provided similar climate zones and patterns in the north and south The climate is mostly warm and tropical The climate tends to be dry which causes the deserts of the Sahara, Kalahari, and Namib Mediterranean climates are found along the coasts Rainfall is seasonal in most places and heaviest in the rainforest

11 Human and Environment Interaction
Desertification This is the expansion of dry conditions into moist areas that are located near deserts This is caused by overgrazing of land which exposes the soil, over farming which increases erosion, and population increase Desertification results in the destruction of forests to increase farmland Nations plant trees, and are trying to be more efficient with the use of land, to decrease this process

12 Nigerian Oil Nigeria is one of the largest producers of African oil 80% - 90% of the nations income is from the production of oil The environmental problems in Nigeria are similar to those in the Middle East (oil spills, fires, and the destruction of pipelines) Deforestation Africans are clearing trees to sell and the create farmland The people of Africa also need the wood to use as a fuel source since most of the population is rural

13 Economic Characteristics
Most nations in Africa are developing nations Characteristics of Developing Nations Low per capita GDP Low Life expectancy High population growth High infant mortality rate Large % of population under 15 Low literacy rate

14 The majority of Africans are engaged in an agricultural economy (primary activities)
The majority of agriculture is subsistence agriculture People must find ways to farm because in some areas the land is not adequate enough to farm (slash and burn methods) In some areas, such as the savannas, people rely on nomadic herding; which has been hurt by the plantations built to focus on one crop because it limits where the animals can be moved Plantation farming is also a part of the African economic base, these plantations are based on cash crops (coffee, tea, sugar) Some African nations are one commodity nations (based in one crop) usually cash crops Nations like Cote d’Ivoire trade cash crops for manufactured goods

15 Because some of these nations are one commodity nations they do not focus their attention to the crops that people need to live, which can lead to poverty and famine if that crop is wiped out by disease or does not grow well Some nations are major exporters of raw materials, and minerals, to industrial nations worldwide The money used to create these businesses comes from outside of Africa, so the money does not stay in Africa Since a portion of this money goes to companies outside of Africa, the nations of Africa do not have the income to build their infrastructure (roads, schools, airports) The infrastructure of African nations can not support enough growth to change the economies of these nations

16 The nations of Africa which are landlocked have fewer opportunities for economic growth, especially through trade The productivity of African businesses is far behind the population growth so there is less money available per person, which continues the poverty within some of these nations The nations of Africa are taking steps to promote trade and improve economies; the African Union was created to help secure Africa's democracy, human rights, and a sustainable economy, especially by bringing an end to intra-African conflict and creating an effective common market. These alliances remove taxes and create common currency such as NAFTA and EU

17 The nations of Africa are trying to diversify and create a variety of economic activities to build their economies, but this is hard because of poor infrastructure The countries of Africa are also trying to improve their educational opportunities to create a better skilled workforce

18 Cultural Characteristics
The peoples of Africa belong to several thousand different ethnic groups. Each ethnic group has its own distinct language, traditions, arts and crafts, history, way of life and religion. Traditions, customs, and historical facts have been passed down through African history orally Customs and traditions change depending on what area you are in, or what ethnic groups you are talking about The diversity of African cultures is reflected in the masks, sculpture, dance, music and jewelry of the tribes and ethnic groups

19 Many of the names of these countries are based off of historical empires such as Mali, Ghana, and Zimbabwe There are between 2000 and 3000 different languages spoken over the continent of Africa Africans also practice a wide range of religions The three major monotheistic religions are practiced in Africa, along with some animist religions too Animistic religions believe in the world containing spirits, like polytheistic religions Few cities have populations of over 1 million people because most of the people live an agricultural lifestyle

20 The population of Africa is unevenly distributed based on several reasons
1) Climate: The climate pushes people to areas where they can sustain life 2) Resources: Since most of the people farm they must move to areas where they can grow enough food to live 3) Ethnic conflicts: These conflicts are usually over land, governmental policy, and religion which forces people to move where they may be safe

21 Africa is also home to a large number of refugees
Civil War within some of these nations forces people to have to relocate into neighboring countries(ex. Hutu’s and Tutsi’s in Rwanda) The healthcare within African nations is very poor Inadequate water supplies, sanitation, and lack of money to provide medicine increases the disease rate AIDS, cholera, and malaria are widespread throughout Africa; in some nations HIV has infected 25% of their population To help slow and down prevent diseases from spreading the nations of Africa have been spraying for bugs and educating people on better healthcare habits

22 Thing and Places of Interest

23 Dakar, Senegal

24 Lagos, Nigeria

25 Johannesburg, South Africa

26 Capetown, South Africa

27 Mount Kilamanjaro Tanzania

28 Islamic Mosque Timbuktu, Mali

29 Victoria Falls Zambezi River Between Zambia and Zimbabwe

30 African Savanna

31 Great Rift Valley



Download ppt "Unit 7 Africa."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google