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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case Microbiology.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case Microbiology."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case Microbiology B.E Pruitt & Jane J. Stein AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION TORTORA FUNKE CASE Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Size Comparisons of Selected Microorganisms/Parasites

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Prions and Viroids Prions are proteins that are believed to cause diseases like BSE. Viroids are small RNAs with no associated protein that causes diseases in plants. Neither fit the criteria for living organisms, but they are microbes and are therefore studied by microbiologists.

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Viruses Consist of nucleic acid and protein.

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Viruses 2 Obligate intracellular parasites.

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Viruses 3 Are they really alive? In general, are smaller than most prokaryotes.

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Viruses 4 Reproduce using host cell mechanisms.

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Viruses 4 Adenovirus Copyright notice: This notice must accompany any copy of the images. The images must not be used for commercial purposes without the consent of the copyright owners. The images are not in the public domain. The images can be freely used for educational purposes. Copyright 1994 Veterinary Sciences Division. Rhinovirus

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Prokaryotic Cells Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryote comes from the Greek words for prenucleus. Eukaryote comes from the Greek words for true nucleus.

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings One circular chromosome, not in a membrane No histones No organelles Peptidoglycan cell walls Binary fission ProkaryoteEukaryote Paired chromosomes, in nuclear membrane Histones Organelles Polysaccharide cell walls Mitotic spindle

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Average size: µm µm Basic shapes:

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Unusual shapes Star-shaped Stella Square Haloarcula Most bacteria are monomorphic A few are pleomorphic Figure 4.5

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pairs: diplococci, diplobacilli Clusters: staphylococci Chains: streptococci, streptobacilli Arrangements

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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18 Outside cell wall Usually sticky A capsule is neatly organized A slime layer is unorganized & loose Extracellular polysaccharide allows cell to attach Capsules prevent phagocytosis Glycocalyx Figure 4.6a, b

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Outside cell wall Made of chains of flagellin Attached to a protein hook Anchored to the wall and membrane by the basal body Flagella Figure 4.8

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Flagella Arrangement Figure 4.7

21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 4.8

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

23 Rotate flagella to run or tumble Move toward or away from stimuli (taxis) Flagella proteins are H antigens (e.g., E. coli O157:H7) Motile Cells

24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Motile Cells Figure 4.9

25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Endoflagella In spirochetes Anchored at one end of a cell Rotation causes cell to move Axial Filaments Figure 4.10a

26 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fimbriae allow attachment Pili are used to transfer DNA from one cell to another Figure 4.11

27 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pili Short protein appendages smaller than flagella Adhere bacteria to surfaces E. coli has numerous types K88, K99, F41, etc. Antibodies to will block adherance F-pilus; used in conjugation Exchange of genetic information Flotation; increase boyancy Pellicle (scum on water) More oxygen on surface

28 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings F-Pilus for Conjugation

29 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Prevents osmotic lysis Made of peptidoglycan (in bacteria) Cell Wall Figure 4.6a, b

30 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Polymer of disaccharide N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) & N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) Linked by polypeptides Peptidoglycan Figure 4.13a

31 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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35 Teichoic acids: Lipoteichoic acid links to plasma membrane Wall teichoic acid links to peptidoglycan May regulate movement of cations Polysaccharides provide antigenic variation Gram-Positive cell walls Figure 4.13b

36 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Teichoic Acids Gram + only Glycerol, Phosphates, & Ribitol Attachment for Phages

37 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

38 Figure 4.13b, c

39 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Thick peptidoglycan Teichoic acids In acid-fast cells, contains mycolic acid Gram-positive cell wallsGram-negative cell walls Thin peptidoglycan No teichoic acids Outer membrane

40 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, phospholipids. Forms the periplasm between the outer membrane and the plasma membrane. Protection from phagocytes, complement, antibiotics. O polysaccharide antigen, e.g., E. coli O157:H7. Lipid A is an endotoxin. Porins (proteins) form channels through membrane Gram-Negative Outer Membrane

41 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gram-Negative Outer Membrane Figure 4.13c

42 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

43 Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Endotoxin or Pyrogen Fever causing Toxin nomenclature Endo- part of bacteria Exo- excreted into environment Structure Lipid A Polysaccharide O Antigen of E. coli, Salmonella G- bacteria only Alcohol/Acetone removes

44 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

45 LPS (contd) Functions Toxic; kills mice, pigs, humans G- septicemia; death due to LPS Pyrogen; causes fever DPT vaccination always causes fevers Adjuvant; stimulates immunity Heat Resistant; hard to remove Detection (all topical & IV products) Rabbits (measure fever) Amoebocytes Lyse in presence of LPS

46 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings LPS (contd.) Appearance of Colonies Mucoid = Smooth (lots of LPS or capsule) Dry = Rough (little LPS or capsule) O Antigen of Salmonella and E. coli 2,000 different O Ags of Salmonella 100s different O Ags of E. coli E. coli O157 O Ags differ in Sugars, not Lipid A

47 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lysozyme digests disaccharide in peptidoglycan. Penicillin inhibits peptide bridges in peptidoglycan. Protoplast is a wall-less cell. Spheroplast is a wall-less Gram-positive cell. L forms are wall-less cells that swell into irregular shapes. Protoplasts and spheroplasts are susceptible to osmotic lysis. Damage to Cell Walls

48 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Crystal violet-iodine crystals form in cell Gram-positive Alcohol dehydrates peptidoglycan CV-I crystals do not leave Gram-negative Alcohol dissolves outer membrane and leaves holes in peptidoglycan CV-I washes out Gram Stain Mechanism

49 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bacterial Stains

50 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plasma Membrane Figure 4.14a

51 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plasma Membrane Phospholipid bilayer Peripheral proteins Integral proteins Transmembrane proteins Figure 4.14b

52 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Membrane is as viscous as olive oil. Proteins move to function Phospholipids rotate and move laterally Fluid Mosaic Model Figure 4.14b

53 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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56 Cytoplasm 80% Water {20% Salts-Proteins) Osmotic Shock important DNA is circular, Haploid Advantages of 1N DNA over 2N DNA More efficient; grows quicker Mutations allow adaptation to environment quicker Plasmids; extra circular DNA Antibiotic Resistance No organelles (Mitochondria, Golgi, etc.)

57 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Spores SPORE

58 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

59 Cross-section of Bacillus spore The central protoplast, or germ cell, carries the constituents of the future vegetative cell, accompanied by dipicolinic acid --heat resistance of the spore. Surrounding the protoplast is a cortex consisting largely of peptidoglycan (murein), -- heat and radiation resistance of the spore. The inner layer, the cortical membrane or protoplast wall, becomes the cell wall of the new vegetative cell when the spore germinates. The spore coats, which constitute up to 50 percent of the volume of the spore, protect it from chemicals, enzymes, etc.

60 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The developmental cycle of the Endospore.

61 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

62 Bacterial endospores. Phase microscopy of sporulating bacteria demonstrates the refractility of endospores, as well as characteristic spore shapes and locations within the mother cell.

63 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mycoplasmas Lack cell walls Sterols in plasma membrane Archaea Wall-less, or Walls of pseudomurein (lack NAM and D amino acids) Atypical Cell Walls

64 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Archaebacteria Newly added taxonomic kingdom.

65 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Archeabacteria 2 Single celled prokaryotes. Extremophiles. 4 broad groups. Methanogens + extreme halophiles Methanogens only Sulfur dependent Thermophiles

66 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Archeabacteria 3 The preceding Methanobacterim image is from the Department of Microbiology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

67 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Eukaryote Cell Structure

68 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Algae Eukaryotes that may be unicellular, colonial or filamentous. These images are from the Molecular Evolution and Organelle Genomics program at the University of Montreal. Copyright by Charles J. OKelly and Tim Littlejohn. Distribution for noncommercial purposes permitted so long as this copyright notice is included and acknowledgement is made.

69 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Algae 2 Aquatic or terrestrial. Mostly plant-like characteristics. Photosynthetic. Great variety of types, but all contain chlorophyll. Some animal-like characteristics like phagocitosis of other organisms.

70 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Algae 3 Important marine food source.

71 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Protozoa Single celled eukaryotes, but may form colonial aggregates. Aquatic with animal-like characteristics. This image is from the Molecular Evolution and Organelle Genomics program at the University of Montreal. Copyright by Charles J. OKelly and Tim Littlejohn. Distribution for noncommercial purposes permitted so long as this copyright notice is included and acknowledgement is made.

72 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Protozoa 2 Ingest organic matter for nutrients. Vary greatly in size from 0.003mm to 5mm. Many are human parasites. Most are motile.

73 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fungi Very diverse group of eukaryotes. Not all are microbes. Yeasts are unicellular and spherical. Molds are filamentous with branching. The preceding Pyromyces sp. image is from the Department of Microbiology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

74 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fungi 2 Non-photosynthetic. Require the uptake of organic matter for nutrients. Saprophytic or parasitic. Propagate by spores.


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