2 ReviewModule 2Looked more closely at the resources that combine to create an information system;IT infrastructure – Hardware / Software resourcesData ResourcesTelecommunications and NetworksThe internet
3 Next Module 3 Business Applications Ebusiness Systems CRM systems Examples of Information SystemsEbusiness SystemsCRM systemsSCM systemsKMS systemsDSS systems
4 Today eBusiness Systems Functional Systems Cross Functional Systems What is meant by the term ‘eBusiness’?
5 Functional Business Systems MarketingProduction / OperationsHuman Resource ManagementAccountingFinance
6 MarketingPlanning, promotion and sale of existing products in existing markets and the development of new products and new markets to better attract and serve present and potential customers.MarketingInformationSystemsInteractiveMarketingSales ForceAutomationSalesManagementMarketResearch &ForecastingAdvertising&PromotionC.R.M.ProductManagement
7 Interactive Marketing Customer Focused marketing process based using the internet, intranet etc. to develop two way transactions between business and customers.Enabled Using;Internet ChatDiscussion GroupsWeb forms / QuestionnairesShift to Social Media
8 Targeted MarketingTools to effectively target online Marketing efforts;Community – tailoring web advertising towards certain virtual communitiesContent – banners and billboards appearing on appropriate webpagesContext – e.g. google’s smart adsOnline Behaviour – Cookies, tracing links.
9 Sales Force Automation Tools that allow the sales force to take a laptop into the field, connect through the internet to record sales data, communicate with clients over , track progress on clients etc.InquiryCustomiseCommitOrderSales LeadConfiguratorContract &PricingOrder EntryProduct CatalogAvailable toPromiseProposal &QuoteCommissionIntegrated SFA Solution
10 Manufacturing Information Systems Support the production / operations functions of business.“Once upon a time, manufacturers operated on a simple build-to-stock model. They build 100 or 100,000 of an item and sold them via distribution networks. They kept track of the stock of inventory and made more of the item once inventory levels dipped below a threshold. Rush jobs were both rare and expensive, and configuration options limited. Things have changed. Concepts like just-in-time inventory, build-to-order manufacturing, end-to-end supply chain visibility, the explosion of in contract manufacturing and the development of web-based e-business tools for collaborative manufacturing have revolutionised plant management.” (Marc Songini)
11 Computer Integrated Manufacturing CIMSimplify production processes, product designs, factory organisation etc.Automate production processes and business functionsIntegrate all production and support processesCreate flexible, agile manufacturing processes that produce high quality goods.
12 Manufacturing Information Systems Resource PlanningSystemsProductionForecastingManufacturingExecutionSystemsEnterprise Resources Planning (ERP)Shop FloorSchedulingEngineeringSystemsComputerAidedDesignProductionSchedulingShop FloorControlComputerAidedEngineeringMaterialRequirementsPlanningMachineControlComputerAidedProcess PlanCapacityPlanningRobotics ControlProductSimulation &PrototypingProductionCostControlProcess ControlQualityControlComputer Integrated Manufacturing
13 Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) Systems that automate the production process;Manufacturing Execution SystemsProcess ControlMachine ControlRobots Control
14 The Manufacturing System Combines 5 key resources;Materials, Equipment, Personnel, Instructions and Production Facilities(Compare this with the IS resources)Manufacturing Execution systems monitor, track and control these key resources, through process controls or machine controls etc.
15 Human Resources Training and Development Compensation Administration StaffingHuman Resource PlanningLabour Force TrackingSuccession PlanningPerformance AppraisalPlanningContract CostingSalary ForecastingStrategicSystemsLabour Cost analysis andBudgetingTurnover AnalysisTraining EffectivenessCareer MatchingCompensation EffectivenessAnd Equity AnalysisBenefit Preference AnalysisTacticalSystemsRecruitingWorkforce Planning /SchedulingSkills AssessmentPerformance EvaluationsPayroll ControlBenefits AdministrationOperationsSystems
16 Staffing the Organisation Recruitment is done over the internetEmployee records are kept in databasesJob changes, compensation changes, hirings and terminations are all tracked by a HRMS.Skills inventories can be kept for effective employee assignments
17 Training And Development As well as electronic learning, HRMS helps HR departments to plan and monitor employees training and development requirements.Computer based performance appraisalsFrom the skills database, succession planning can be managed.
18 Accounting Information Systems Order ProcessingCaptures and processes customers order and produces data for inventory control and accounts receivable.Inventory ControlProcesses data reflecting changes in inventory and provides shipping and reorder informationAccounts ReceivableRecords amounts owed by customers and produces customer invoices, monthly customer statement and credit management reports
19 Accounting Information Systems Accounts PayableRecords purchases from, amounts owed to, and payments to suppliers and produces cash management reportsPayrollRecords employee work and compensation data and produces paycheck and other payroll documents and reports.General LedgerConsolidates data from other accounting systems and produces the periodic financial statements and reports of the business.
20 Financial Management Systems Cash Management SystemsForecast and manage the cash position, monitors cash flow.Investment Management SystemsOnline investment management systems allow portfolios of securities / short term stocks to be managed more effectively.Capital Budgeting SystemsEvaluate Risk/Return of capital expenditures, optimise the portfolio of ongoing capital projectsFinancial Planning SystemsForecast financial performance and financing needs.
21 Cross Functional Enterprise Applications “Integration of the enterprise has emerged as a critical issue for organisations in all business sectors striving to maintain competitive advantage. Integration is the key to success. It is the key to unlocking information and making it available to any user, anywhere, anytime.” (Kalakota & Robinson)While the functional systems we’ve discussed are effective in serving function based needs, many critical issues in businesses involve multiple functions.A shift from mainframe-based legacy systems to integrated cross-functional client/server applications.
23 Enterprise Application Architecture Instead of focusing on traditional business functions, enterprise applications focus on achieving fundamental business processes in concert with customers, suppliers, partners and employees.ERP – efficiency of firms internal production, distribution etc.CRM – acquiring and retaining profitable customersPRM – acquiring and retaining partners who can enhance selling the firms productsSCM – developing the most efficient sourcing and procurement processes with suppliers.KMS – providing firms employees with tool to support group collaboration