3 Left lateral view showing the functions of the local areas
4 Sensory homunculus drawn overlying a coronal section through the postcentral gyrus. The location of the cortical representation of various body parts is shown.
5 CT SCAN..Contrast enhanced CT -- After IV injection of contrast mediumAbnormality becomes visible or more prominentContrast enhancement is due to breakdown of blood brain barrier allowing contrast to enter the lesion particularly in neoplasm, infection, inflammation and subacute stage of ischemiaAlso it is helpful in demonstrating blood vesselsMCAACABasilar arteryStraight sinusSuperior sagittal sinus
6 CT SCAN..Computerized reconstructions can be made from axial sections to provide images in coronal or sagittal planesSagittal reconstructionCoronal reconstruction
7 CT SCAN..CT AngiographyHelpful in diagnosis of vascular abnormalities e.g. stenosis, occlusion, aneurysm or vascular malformationOcclusion of left middle cerebral artery
9 CT SCAN.. A. Orbit B. Sphenoid Sinus C. Temporal Lobe D.Externa Auditory CanalE. Mastoid Air CellsF. Cerebellar Hemisphere
10 CT SCAN..A. Frontal LobeB. Frontal Bone (Superior Surface of Orbital Part)C. Dorsum SellaeD. Basilar ArteryE. Temporal LobeF. Mastoid Air CellsG. Cerebellar Hemisphere
11 CT SCAN.. A. Anterior Horn of Lateral Ventricle B. Head of Caudate NucleusC. Anterior Limb of Internal CapsuleD. Putamen and Globus PallidusE. Posterior Limb of Internal CapsuleF. Third VentricleG. Quadrigeminal Plate CisternH. Cerebellar VermisI. Occipital Lobe
12 CT SCAN.. A. Falx Cerebri B. Frontal Lobe C. Body of Lateral Ventricle D. Splenium of Corpus CallosumE. Parietal LobeF. Occipital LobeG. Superior Sagittal Sinus
13 CT SCAN.. A. Falx Cerebri B. Sulcus C. Gyrus D. Superior Sagittal Sinus
14 MRI.. No ionizing radiation No Patient preparation fasting for general anesthesia.Contrast medium: GadoliniumIndications:strokestumorsinfectionVascular disorderswhite matter diseasesome cases of trauma
15 MRI.. Nothing magnetic can be allowed inside the MRI room ContraindicationsCardiac pacemakerIntraocular ferrous foreign bodyPregnancy (1st trimester)ClaustrophobiaNothing magnetic can be allowed inside the MRI room
39 MR Angiography..Can be done with or without intravenous injection of contrast materialAssesses intra and extra cranial arteries for any abnormalities such as stenosis, occlusion or vascular malformation.
40 MR Venography..Can be done with or without intravenous injection of contrast materialAssess venous sinuses and major cortical veinsCan confirm or exclude venous thrombosis
41 Middle Cerebral Artery MCA is the largest branch which supplies the frontal, temporal and parietal lobesMCA has three branches (put three fingers spaced apart beside inner aspect of ear to show location of MCA)MCA is the most commonly affected vessel in embolic stroke (plaque or clot from a distant source = embolic)
42 Circle of WillisThe Circle of Willis join the anterior and posterior circulation – the carotid and vertebral-basilar circulationsImportant route of secondary or collateral circulation in the event of loss of circulationThe Circle of Willis is the most common location for congenital aneurysm
46 CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAM..Gold standard technique for assessment of intra and extra cranial vesselsIt can demonstrate different vascular diseases (stenosis, occlusion, vascular malformation and blood supply of brain tumorsIt is an invasive technique – needs femoral artery puncture and cannulation.Recently its main is for treatment of acute occlusions, vascular malformations, aneurysms, or pre operative embolization of vascular supply of tumors.
50 ULTRASOUND NEONATAL BRAIN.. Simple and easy way to scan the head of neonates and young babies with no discomfort to the babyNot using ionizing radiationScanning is best done through an open fontanellae.Readily carried out even on sick babies in ICU.Particularly useful in detectingHydrocephalusIntracerebral hemorrhageCongenital abnormality of the brain