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Fundamental Aspects of Nuclear Safety

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1 Fundamental Aspects of Nuclear Safety
Università di Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione Fundamental Aspects of Nuclear Safety Marino Mazzini Professore Ordinario nel s.s.d. “Impianti Nucleari”

2 DOCUMENTAZIONE PER LA LEZIONE SU NUCLEAR SAFETY FUNDAMENTALS
Slides (M. Mazzini)

3 CONTENT Introduction: Major Aspects of Nuclear Safety Siting
Operational Safety Safety Culture Conclusions

4 INTRODUCTION

5 Major Aspects of Nuclear Safety: Siting

6 Siting of Nuclear Power Plants
The site choice can have relevant consequences for the design of NPP and also for the costs of electrical energy distribution. The following aspects have to be considered: - Heat sink availability (river, lake or sea) - Population density for defining exclusion area and the zone at low population density Meteorology Impact of natural events (hurrycanes, tornados, floodings, vulcanic explosions, etc.) - Sismic characteristics (Design Basis Earthquake) - Impact of antropic activities (aircraft crashes, dam failure, rail accidents, tossic or flammable clouds, etc.). 6

7 IAEA Siting Methodology
Study Phases in the IAEA Methodology Stage 1: Regional Survey for finding potential sites Stage 2: Screening of potential sites for finding candidate sites Stage 3: Analysis and Characterization of candidate sites for the choice of site/s preferred 7

8 IAEA Siting Methodology
I Phase: Regional Survey in the CNEN/ENEL Study of Italy Application of Exclusion Factors for: Distribution of Population Sismo-tectonic Characteristics Vulcanismus Availability of Water for Heat Sink Terrain Orografy 8

9 I Phase: Regional Survey, applying exclusion factors

10 I Phase: Regional Survey Applicazione dei vincoli escludenti
10

11 I Phase: Regional Survey, applying exclusion factors
11

12 Major Aspects of Nuclear Safety: Optimization of Operational Safety (1/3)

13 Major Aspects of Nuclear Safety: Optimization of Operational Safety (2/3)

14 Major Aspects of Nuclear Safety: Optimization of Operational Safety (3/3)

15 SAFETY CULTURE Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance.

16 Elements of Safety Culture

17 Elements of Safety Culture
An adequate Safety Culture requires:

18 Major Aspects of Nuclear Safety: Final Conclusions

19 CONCLUDING METAPHORA Nuclear Safety may be seen as a tree whose shadow has to protect plant, workers and population: the more dense is the shadow, the safer is the plant. The main body and a few principal branches, although fundamental, do not give enough shadow; the tree has to grow and to develop in a myriad of ever smaller branches and leaves in order to give full coverage of protection. The main branches are the main principles and fundamental criteria; the smaller ones are safety guides, review guides and detailed guidance; the filling effect of the leaves can be assimilated to the all pervading effect of a well established safety culture. 19 19

20 Fonti e Letture Consigliate
Ingegneria Nucleare e Sicurezza D. Bodansky, “Nuclear Energy – Principles, Practices and Prospects”, American Institute of Physics, New York, 1996. J.R. Lamarsh, A.J. Baratta, “Introduction to Nuclear Engineering”, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2001. E.E. Lewis, “Nuclear Power Reactor Safety”, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1977. Nuclear News, ANS. G. Petrangeli, “Nuclear Safety”, Elsevier Publ., 2006 Prospettiva storica sulla nascita dell’era nucleare e nuovo ambientalismo R. Rhodes, “The Making of the Atomic Bomb”, Touchstone, 1988. G. Cravens “Power to Save the World”, A.A. Knopf, New York, 2007 J. Lovelock, “The Revenge of Gaia: Earth's Climate Crisis and the Fate of Humanity”, Perseus Books Group Ian Hore-Lacy, Nuclear Energy in the 21st Century, World Nuclear University Press Informazioni generali sull’energia nucleare e non-nucleare ,

21 Visitate il sito YouNuclear


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