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La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani The Pamela experiment ready for flight Oscar Adriani – INFN Firenze,

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Presentation on theme: "La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani The Pamela experiment ready for flight Oscar Adriani – INFN Firenze,"— Presentation transcript:

1 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani The Pamela experiment ready for flight Oscar Adriani – INFN Firenze, Università di Firenze on behalf of the Pamela collaboration Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light Nuclei Astrophysics

2 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani BariFlorenceFrascati Italy: TriesteNaplesRome CNR, Florence Moscow St. Petersburg NMSU GSFC USA: Russia: India: Mumbai Germany: Siegen Sweden: KTH, Stockholm

3 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani Pamelas scientific objectives Study antiparticles in cosmic rays Search for antimatter Search for dark matter Study cosmic-ray propagation Study solar physics and solar modulation Study the electron spectrum (local sources?)

4 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani o Long-term monitoring of the solar modulation of cosmic rays o Energetic particles from the Sun (e + ) o High-energy particles in the Earth magnetosphere Antiproton flux 80 MeV GeV Positron flux50 MeV – 270 GeV Electron flux up to 800 GeV Proton flux up to 1000 GeV Electron/positron fluxup to 2 TeV Light nuclei (up to Z=6) up to 500 GeV/n Light isotopes (D, 3 He) up to 1 GeV/n Antinuclei search (sensitivity better than in He/He) PAMELA Capabilities

5 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani Secondary production (upper and lower limits) Simon et al. Primary production annihilation (m( ) = 964 GeV, Ullio 2002) Secondary production (CAPRICE94-based) Bergström et al. Unexplored Region PAMELA energy range Antiprotons Black holes / Dark Matter Propagation / Dark Matter Extragalactic primordials

6 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani Unexplored Region Secondary production Leaky box model (Protheroe 1982) Primary production annihilation (m( ) = 336 GeV Baltz & Edsjö 1999) Secondary production Moskalenko + Strong model (1998) without reacceleration PAMELA energy range Positrons Propagation / Dark Matter Charge modulation effects

7 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani Secondary production (upper and lower limits) Simon et al. Secondary production (CAPRICE94-based) Bergström et al. Primary production annihilation (m( ) = 964 GeV) Antiprotons > antiprotons 80 MeV/c GeV/c

8 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani Secondary production Leaky box model (Protheroe 1982) Primary production annihilation m( ) = 336 GeV Secondary production Moskalenko + Strong model (1998) without reacceleration Positrons > positrons 50 MeV/c GeV/c

9 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani Cosmic-ray Antimatter Search He / He CR production ~O( )

10 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani ParticleNumber (3 yrs)Energy Range Protons MeV – 1000 GeV Antiprotons> MeV – 190 GeV Electrons MeV – 2 TeV Positrons> MeV – 270 GeV He MeV/n – 500 GeV/n Be MeV/n – 500 GeV/n C MeV/n – 500 GeV/n Antihelium Limit MeV/n – 70 GeV/n Semi-Polar orbit (70 0 ) Low energy particles Wide energy range + 3 years mission Reliable measurements Expected Fluxes in 3 Years

11 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani Earth observation 350 / 610 km Inclination = 70.4 o Soyuz 2 launcher Baikonur Cosmodrome 3 year mission km Pamela operational During launch / orbital manoeuvres Housed in an atmospheric pressure vessel Temperature = 5 o C ÷ 35 o C All subsystems must withstand launch vibrations! Electronics must withstand up to ~3 krad Resurs DK1 Total mass ~ 470kg / 345W power budget Satellite and orbit Launch date: June 14-16, 2006

12 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani Geometrical Factor ~20.5 cm 2 sr The PAMELA subdetectors 1.2 m Mass ~450 kg Power ~360 W

13 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani Magnetic spectrometer (I) Si Tracker + magnet Rigidity measurement 5 Nd-B-Fe magnet segments 0.48T at the centre (13.2 x 16.2 cm 2 ) x 44.5 cm high 6 planes of 300 m thick double sided Si detectors <3 m resolution in bending view +/-10 MIP dynamic range (VA1 chips)

14 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani Momentum resolution 2003 Last beam-test of PAMELA flight CERN-SPS GeV/c protons Magnetic spectrometer (II) MDR ~ 1 TV/c Multiple scattering N x & s x

15 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani Calorimeter (I) Si-W Calorimeter Measures energies of e ±. E/E = 15% / E 1/2 + 5% Si-X / W / Si-Y structure. 22 Si / 21 W 16X 0 / Imaging: EM - vs- hadronic discrimination, longitudinal and transverse shower profile Total number of channels 4224 Wide dynamic range MIP Calorimeter Requirements: p/e + selection eff. 90% p rejection factor 10 5 e - rejection factor 10 4

16 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani Calorimeter (II) Electron-Proton Separation SPS Test Beam Data: p & e GeV/c

17 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani SPS Test Beam Data (p&e - up to 200 GeV) + Simulation Calorimeter (III) Electron identification efficiency Test Beam Simulation Proton contamination in the electron sample Test Beam Simulation At 200 GeV: Proton rejection factor Electron selection efficiency 90%

18 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani Trigger/Time of Flight (I) Plastic scintillator + PMT Trigger Detection of albedo particles Particle identification (up to 1 GeV/c) dE/dx

19 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani Δ(Z=6)~0.26 Time Resolution S1-S2S1-S3 C 200 MeV/n66 ps68 ps C 1200 MeV/n75 ps73 ps Cr 500 MeV/n71 ps81 ps C MeV/n Δβ ~ Trigger/Time of Flight (II) Charge Resolution Results from heavy ions beam test at GSI (2006)

20 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani Anticoincidence system Defines acceptance for tracks Plastic scintillator + PMT Auxiliary detectors (I)

21 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani Plastic scintillator: 482 mm x 482 mm x 10 mm 6 PMT read-out Dynamic range: MIP 2 x 18 3 He proportional counters (polyethylene / Cd envelope) 600 × 550 × 150 mm 3 n + 3 He p + 3 H keV O(10) more n in hadronic cascades than EM Auxiliary detectors (II) Shower Scintillator (S4) Neutron Counter

22 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani Trigger and Data Rate One orbit Level 1 Trigger TOF Scintillator Coincidence S1 x S2 x S3 S2 x S3 12 Hz (G.F. = 20.5 cm 2 sr + background) Calorimeter Self-trigger (E e >0.3TeV) 10 mHz (G.F. = 600 cm 2 sr) Data Rate / Storage / Downlink 12 Hz x 5 kByte / event ~ 5 GB/day Up to 20 GB daily on-board Down-linked with a few ground connections per day [PAMELA DAQ ~10% dead-time (10 ms)]

23 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani Detectors tested at PS / SPS Test facilities as Prototypes and in FM configuration Mass/Thermal Models Qualified, March-May 2003 Full Cycle of Vibration /Shock of the Flight Model passed at IABG/ Munich, January 2005 PAMELA Technological Model completed and delivered to Russia December 2003 PAMELA Flight Model delivered to TSSKB_Progress Factory in Samara (Russia) April 2005 PAMELA Status (2005)

24 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani On-ground muon results 2005 acquisition of atmospheric particles during PAMELA test before delivering Check of spectrometer systematics with positive and negative muons Preliminary results: - no efficiency correction - first-order alignment - no ETA p.f.a. Preliminary!

25 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani PAMELA Event Ground Data Muon: 2.8 GV

26 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani PAMELA Event Ground Data Hadron: 6.6 GV

27 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani PAMELA Event Calorimeter Self Trigger GF 400 cm 2 sr

28 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani PAMELA Status (2005) Pamela has been fully qualified in Samara from May, 2005 up to March, 2006 Cooling loop Mechanical interfaces Power supply tests Interface with the Very High Speed Radiolink (VRL) Electrical tests Many repeated tests have been done during 1 year Pamela was accepted to be sent to the launch base (March 2006)

29 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani PAMELA Status (2006) (I) Pamela was transported by airplane from Samara to Bajkonour on March 28, days work before launch Standalone tests Insertion in the pressurized container Electrical tests with the satellite Test of the downlink

30 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani

31 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani

32 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani

33 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani

34 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani PAMELA Status (2006) (II) All the tests were successful (May 18, 2006) Pamela is ready for flight Launch window: June 2006 Next steps: 4 days after the launch 1switch on (nominal way – hot parts) for 4 hours data downlink check of data in NTSOMZ receiving station 6 days after the launch: start of commissioning phase hot parts (6 days) cold parts (3 days) +test of various operating modes 17 days after the launch beginning of physics data taking

35 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani PAMELA is the first space experiment which will measure Antiprotons and Positrons to high energies ( 200GeV) with an unprecedented statistical precision PAMELA will set a new lower limit for finding Antihelium PAMELA will look for Dark Matter candidates PAMELA has collected ground cosmic-rays for various months at the laboratories of Rome 2 University and at the Samara TSSKB-Progress factory All detectors are performing as designed and PAMELA seems able to achieve its scientific goals. Pamela has been delivered to Russia at the end of March 2005 PAMELA has successfully passed all the integrations tests with the Resurs- DK1 Satellite at TSSKB-Progress factory in Samara Pamela has been delivered to Bajkonour at the end of March 2006 PAMELA has successfully passed all the integrations tests with the Resurs- DK1 Satellite at the launch base in Bajkonour and is ready for flight PAMELA will be launched in the June 2006 time window Conclusions

36 La Biodola (Isola dElba) May 26, 2006The Pamela experiment ready for flight O. Adriani


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