9Typical CollocationsEach successive president chose entanglements and evasion over transparency, legality, and independence.Turning schools around could help save successive generations of kids who quit and often end up jobless.
10Phraseology in Language There is a great deal of recurrent phraseology in language (including academic language)This ‘formulaic language’ is crucial for accurate, appropriate, and fluent language use
11What is Formulaic Language? Recurrent multi-word lexical items that have a single meaning or function (Schmitt, 2010)It is a umbrella cover term for a number of formulaic categoriesIdiomsCollocationsPhrasal verbsLexical bundlesLexical phrasesPhrasal expressionsetc
12What is Formulaic Language? multi-word units, multiword chunks, fixed expressions, frozen phrases, phrasal vocabulary, routine formulas, chunks, prefabricated routines …Individual phrasal items will be referred to as a formulaic sequences
13Why is Formulaic Language Important? Formulaic language is one of the most important components of language overallThe reasons for this are numerous:
14Why is Formulaic Language Important? Formulaic language is ubiquitous in language use
15Why is Formulaic Language Important? Formulaic language is ubiquitous in language useMeanings and functions are often realized by formulaic language
16Why is Formulaic Language Important? Formulaic language is ubiquitous in language useMeanings and functions are often realized by formulaic languageFormulaic language is necessary for appropriate functional language use
17Why is Formulaic Language Important? Formulaic language is ubiquitous in language useMeanings and functions are often realized by formulaic languageFormulaic language is necessary for appropriate functional language useFormulaic language has processing advantages
18Why is Formulaic Language Important? Formulaic language is an important component of language acquisition
19Why is Formulaic Language Important? Formulaic language is an important component of language acquisitionFormulaic language is a feature of many languages
20Why is Formulaic Language Important? Formulaic language is an important component of language acquisitionFormulaic language is a feature of many languagesThe use of formulaic language helps speakers be fluent
21Why is Formulaic Language Important? Formulaic language is an important component of language acquisitionFormulaic language is a feature of many languagesThe use of formulaic language helps speakers be fluentPhraseology is a main feature that distinguishes different synonyms
22Ubiquitous in Language Use 52-58% Erman and Warren (2000)32% Foster (2001)48-80% (M=66%) Oppenheim (2000)once every five words Sorhus (1977)21% 30% Biber, et al. (1999)31% - 40% Howarth (1998)15% Rayson (2008)
23Ubiquitous in Language Use 52-58% Erman and Warren (2000):32% Foster (2001)48-80% (M=66%) Oppenheim (2000)once every five words Sorhus (1977)21% 30% Biber, et al. (1999)31% - 40% Howarth (1998)15% Rayson (2008)Figures depend on the method of measurement, and whether spoken vs. written discourse
24Meanings and Functions The more recurrent a language need is (e.g. need to apologize, make a request, explain a particular idea), the more likely there will be a conventionalized expression (i.e. formulaic language) to express it
25Meanings and Functions Expressing a concept: (get out of Dodge [City] = get out of town quickly, usually in uncomfortable circumstances)Stating a commonly believed truth or advice: (Too many cooks spoil the soup = it is difficult to get a number of people to work well together)Providing phatic expressions which facilitate social interaction: (Nice weather today is a non-intrusive way to open a conversation)Signposting discourse organization: (on the other hand signals an alternative viewpoint)
26Meanings and Functions Providing technical phraseology which can transact information in a precise and efficient manner: (2-mile final is a specific location in an aircraft landing pattern)Maintaining conversations: (How are you?, See you later)Realizing the topics necessary in daily conversations: (When is X? (time), How far is X? (location))Expressing functions: I'm (very) sorry to hear about ___ to express sympathy
27Appropriate Language Use Formulaic language is expected by the speech community, and so word combinations which do not comply to the norm sound ‘unnatural’
28Appropriate Language Use gap Native speaker or learner?Betty very skillfully stopped the gap of the mailbox so that birds could not get in.… but to bridge the gap between existing …
29Appropriate Language Use Betty very skillfully stopped the gap of the mailbox so that birds could not get in.Meaningful but awkward… but to bridge the gap between existingAppropriate word (collocation) choice
30Appropriate Language Use Schmitt (ELIA, )Define borderHow is it used?
31Appropriate Language Use BNC frequency X + on Figurative senseborder 8, (1%)borders 2, (3%)bordering (48%) 71%bordered (28%) 75%
32Appropriate Language Use His passion for self-improvement bordered on the pathological.But his approach is unconscionable, bordering on criminal.Some other words which occur to the right ofbordered/ing on:a slump arrogance chaosa sulk austerity conspiracyalcoholic poisoning bad taste contemptantagonism blackmail crueltyapathy carelessness cynicism
33Appropriate Language Use SOMETHING (is/are) bordered/bordering on SOMETHINGUNPLEASANT
34Processing Advantages Pawley and Syder (1983)Formulaic sequences offer processing efficiency because single memorized units, even if made up of a sequence of words, are processed more quickly and easily than the same sequences of words which are generated creatively.The mind uses an abundant resource (long term memory) to store a number of prefabricated chunks of language that can be used ‘ready made’ in language production.This compensates for a limited resource (working memory), which can potentially be overloaded when generating language on-line from individual lexical items and syntactic/discourse rules.
35Processing Advantages FigurativePersonally, I think you can have the highest degree from the best university in the world, but at the end of the day it’s your contribution to the society that matters, and not the name of the university you went to at all.LiteralHowever, I still had to carry most of my stuff in small boxes from my old room to the new one. I had to make at least 50 trips soat the end of the day I was absolutely exhausted.NovelI know that at the end of the war he went on to teach students at the Military Academy.
36Processing Advantages Siyanova, Conklin, and Schmitt (SLR, 2011)First Pass Reading Time = (early)Total Reading Time = (late)Fixation Count = (late)
37Processing Advantages Siyanova, Conklin, and SchmittFigurative Literal NovelFirst Pass Reading Time (ms)Total Reading Time (ms)Fixation Count
38Processing Advantages Siyanova, Conklin, and SchmittFigurative Literal NovelFirst Pass Reading Time (ms) 447 = 454 = 497Total Reading Time (ms) 514 = 507 < 628Fixation Count = 2.7 < 3.2
39Language AcquisitionPeters (1983) suggests that formulaic sequences may be decomposed and the individual components extracted through a process of segmentation, to give insights into vocabulary and grammar:An hour ago, a year ago, a month agoA(n) _____ ago + hour, year, month
40Occurs in a Range of Languages Formulaic language has been found in a range of languages:English, Russian, French, Spanish, Italian, German, Swedish, Polish, Arabic, Hebrew, Turkish, Greek, and ChineseIs it a universal trait of all languages?
41Helps Speakers be Fluent The largest unit of novel discourse that native speakers are able to process is a single clause of 8-10 wordsWhen speaking, proficient speakers will speed up and become fluent during these clausesBut they will then slow down or even pause at the end of these clausesNS seldom pause in the middle of a clause, or at least not for long
42Helps Speakers be Fluent But proficient speakers can fluently say multi-clause utterances:- You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make him drink.Kuiper (2004) shows that speakers who operate under severe time constraints (play-by-play sports announcers, auctioneers) use a great deal of formulaic language in their speechSo, formulaic language helps speakers be more fluent
43Distinguishes Synonyms (Stubbs, 1994) How are the following (near) synonyms used?WORKJOBCAREERLABOREMPLOYMENT
44Distinguishes Synonyms (Stubbs, 1994) WORK:workaholic, workforce, workload, workplace aid worker, factory worker, office worker, social worker
45Distinguishes Synonyms (Stubbs, 1994) WORK:workaholic, workforce, workload, workplace aid worker, factory worker, office worker, social workerneutral? (frequent word = many contexts)
54Learner Use of Formulaic Language Learners don’t use many idiomsLearners do use many high-frequency collocations (nice day)Learners don’t use many lower-frequency but tightly-bound collocations (preconceived notions)
55Learner Use of Formulaic Language But learners often do not use the collocations they know appropriatelyInappropriate collocations is a leading problem in learner languageLearners often use words with their correct meanings, but do not understand the correct context of use (collocation, register, frequency)
56Learner Use of Formulaic Language Learners consistently overestimate their comprehension of reading texts that contain formulaic sequences that they either fail to identify or misunderstand, even at high levels of proficiency (Martinez and Murphy, TQ 2011)
57Learner Acquisition of Formulaic Language Boers & Lindstromberg (ARAL 2012) reviewed acquisition research:Learning from exposure requires repetition (frequency)Intentional learning produced better resultsRaising awareness of formulaic language is not a powerful accelerator of learningKnowing the component words makes learning a formulaic sequence easierProviding learning strategies (dictionaries, concordance lines) produced mixed results
58Learner Acquisition of Formulaic Language Does learner use of formulaic language (e.g. collocations) improve just from studying in an academic environment?Incidental acquisitionLi and Schmitt (JSLW, 2009)
59Learner Acquisition of Formulaic Language We followed a Chinese MA student at Nottingham over one academic year and compiled a learner corpus from all of her essays and dissertationWe then analyzed all of her assignments and dissertation for formulaic language
60Learner Acquisition of Formulaic Language Would the student produce more formulaic language over the year?Would the student produce better formulaic language over the year?Would the student become more confident in producing formulaic language over the year?
64Learner Acquisition of Formulaic Language Does learner use of formulaic language (e.g. collocations) improve from explicit teaching?Focused instructionJones and Haywood (2004, In Schmitt (Ed.) Formulaic Sequences)
65Learner Acquisition of Formulaic Language Learners had better awareness of formulaic language after 10 weeks and could identify a greater number of sequences in a textSome learners made some progress in producing more formulaic sequences in a C-test:He suspected that too much of th__ ki__ o__chemical might encourage the immune system…)Most learners made no noticeable improvement in the number of formulaic sequences produced in their essays over 2 weeks
66Necessity of Formulaic Language Cowie (1992:10) goes so far to say:“It is impossible to perform at a level acceptable to native users, in writing or in speech, without controlling an appropriate range of multiword units.”66
67Pedagogical Implications Meunier review (ARAL, 2012)If formulaic sequences are so important:They need to be included in teaching syllabuses and materialsWe can’t assume they will just be learned from exposureThey need to incorporated into language tests to a greater extent
68Pedagogical Implications But what formulaic sequences?Vincent (JEAP, 2013) proposes a 6-stage process for identifying academic phraseologyMartinez (ELTJ, 2013) suggests a selection framework based on frequency and transparencyIn order to incorporate formulaic sequences into their teaching and testing, most practitioners need a list of formulaic sequences to address
69An Academic Formulas List (1-24) Simpson-Vlach & Ellis (AL, 2010) in terms ofat the same timefrom the point of viewin order toas well aspart of thethe fact thatin other wordsthe point of view ofthere is aas a result ofthis is aon the basis ofa number ofthere is nopoint of viewthe number ofthe extent to whichas a resultin the case ofwhether or notthe same timewith respect topoint of view of
70An Academic Formulas List (1-24) The table showed the first 24 formulas on the core list (written and spoken), ranked by a combination of frequency and MI scoresAll component words of these formulas come from the 1st 1,000 frequency band
71An Academic Formulas List Written 177-200 even though thethis does notwas based onthe nature of thein the course ofdegree to whichbe argued thatin terms of afor this reasonare based onin a number oftwo types ofthe total numberis more likelywhich can beare able tobe considered asbe used tob and cdepend on theis that it isis affected byshould also beif they are
72An Academic Formulas List Written 176-199 even though thethis does notwas based onthe nature of thein the course ofdegree to whichbe argued thatin terms of afor this reasonare based onin a number oftwo types ofthe total numberis more likelywhich can beare able tobe considered asbe used tob and cdepend on theis that it isis affected by (AWL)should also beif they are
73An Academic Formulas List Top 200 from written texts1st 1, different words2nd 1, different wordsAWL different words
74An Academic Formulas List To learn formulas from the AFL, learners must either:Know the high frequency component words alreadyThis makes the learning easierOrLearn the AFL formulas as wholes even if some component words are not knownLess efficientKnowing AWL words would not help muchKnowing the 1st 1,000 words is key
75An Academic Formulas List Many of the AFL are structural components of meaningful sentences, but may not contain clear a meaning sense in their own right:is that it isis affected byshould also beif they are
76An Academic Formulas List The AFL is based around functions:Framing attributesthe idea thatthe change inQuantity specificationa series ofIdentification and focusdifferent types ofsuch as a
77An Academic Formulas List Identification and focusexactly the same(the) difference between (the)Locativesin the real worldVagueness markersand so forthHedgesto some extent
78An Academic Formulas List Obligation and directiveI want you toExpressions of ability and possibilityallows us toare able toEvaluationan important role inis consistent withDiscourse markerseven though thein conjunction with
79Formulaic Framework (Martinez, ELTJ, 2013) Infrequent Frequenttake credit take issue take time take place,556Transparent Opaquetake credit take time take issue take place
80Formulaic Framework (Martinez, ELTJ, 2013) Frequenttake time (2) take place (1)Transparent Opaquetake credit (4) take issue (3)Infrequent
81PHRASE List (Martinez & Schmitt, AL, 2012) PHRASE List (PHRASal Expressions)Some formulaic sequences are very frequent500 phrasal expressions within 5,000 BNC frequency levelBased on same frequency as individual BNC wordsPhrases which are opaque and not easily guessable
82PHRASE List LEAD TO (CAUSE) 13,555 (1st 1,000 frequency level) Excessive smoking can lead to heart disease.HAVE GOT TO (must) 12,270 (2nd 1,000 frequency level)You have got to try this salad.BY THE TIME (when) 3,607 (3rd 1,000 frequency level)By the time dinner started there were none left.
83PHRASE List Integrated Phrase Frequency Spoken Written Written Example List (per 100 million) general general academicRankHAVE TO 83, *** ** * I exercisebecause Ihave to.GOING TO , *** ** x I’m going to(FUTURE) think about it.WAS TO , x *** ** The messagewas to betransmittedworldwide.
84PHRASE List Integrated Phrase Frequency Spoken Written Written Example List (per 100 million) general general academicRankMAKE UP *** ** x You’d betterONE’S MIND make upyour mind.AT WORK x *** *** There werestrange forcesat work.
85Experimental PHRASE Test Inclusion in the Vocabulary Levels Test1 take place2 have got to _____ do3 seek to _____ try4 find out _____ must5 make sure6 carry out
86Experimental PHRASE Test Inclusion in the Vocabulary Levels Test1 take place2 have got to __6__ do3 seek to __3__ try4 find out __2__ must5 make sure6 carry out
87Experimental PHRASE Test 1 take place2 have got to __6__ do3 seek to __3__ try4 find out __2__ must5 make sure6 carry outX Didn’t work well – learners needed context to make sense of many phrasal expressions
88Experimental PHRASE Test turn out: It turned out different.a. started b. seemed c. became d. did not look
89Experimental PHRASE Test turn out: It turned out different.a. started b. seemed c. became d. did not look
90Experimental PHRASE Test at least: At least it is warm.a. other things may be bad, but b. many days have passed and now c. I cannot believe that d. the least important thing is
91Experimental PHRASE Test at least: At least it is warm.a. other things may be bad, but b. many days have passed and now c. I cannot believe that d. the least important thing is
92Experimental PHRASE Test Seems to work much betterStill in pilotingRon Martinez(San Francisco State University)
93Vocabulary Website Resource Most Norbert Schmitt (& co-author) publications and other vocabulary resources can be accessed at his personal website:This PowerPoint presentation is availableThe PHRASE List is availableLink to COCA Corpus BYU web site