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 Presented by: Jarrett Hurms.  Deviance & Social Control.

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Presentation on theme: " Presented by: Jarrett Hurms.  Deviance & Social Control."— Presentation transcript:

1  Presented by: Jarrett Hurms

2  Deviance & Social Control

3  Deviance is the violation of social norms  Key terms are: o Deviance o Negative deviance o Positive deviance o Social control o Social sanctions

4  Deviance-behavior that departs from social norms.  It can range from criminal behavior to wearing heavy makeup (considered deviant by some religious groups).  Deviance can be positive or negative.  What deviance actually is varies from group to group depending on how they define deviant behavior.

5  Behavior that fails to meet acceptable norms.  People either reject the norms, misinterpret the norms, or are unaware of the norms.  Example: Visiting another country

6  Involves over conformity to norms which leads to an imbalance and extremes of perfection.  Idealize group norms.

7  Deviance is mostly used to describe violations of significant norms. o Significant norms are those that are highly important to most members of a society or to members with the most power.  Deviant o A person who has violated one or most of society’s most highly valued norms. o Reactions to deviants are usually negative and involve attempts to change or control the deviant behavior.

8  Social Control o Ways to promote conformity to norms. o Two types of social control. Internal and external  All societies have ways to promote order, stability, and predictability.

9  Within an individual  Developed during the socialization process.  Example: When you do something because you just feel it is the right thing to do, you are practicing internal social control  Internalization of norms

10  Based on social sanctions-rewards or punishments that encourage conformity to social norms.  Positive and negative sanctions.  Positive-awards used to increase a behavior.  Negative sanctions-criticisms, fines, and imprisonment.  Sanctions may be formal and informal. o Informal-ridicule, gossip, and smiles. o Formal-imprisonment, low grades, and official awards.

11  Functionalism & Deviance

12 Functionalist perspective emphasizes social stability and the way different parts of a society contribute to the whole.

13  Deviance erodes trust.  If not punished deviance can cause others to perform deviant behavior.  Deviance stimulates deviance in others.  Deviant behavior is expensive.

14  Society can sometimes benefit from deviance. o When a child is taken away from neglectful parents it provides an example to take care of their children.  Deviance can be a temporary safety valve. o Teens listen to music, wear clothes, and watch TV that parents may see as deviant behavior.  This minor act of deviance may help students from the many pressures they face.  Deviance increases unity within a society or a group.  When a deviant behavior reminds people of something they value, it strengthens their commitment.  Deviance promotes needed social change. o Example: Martin Luther King Jr., Women’s Rights Movement, etc.

15  The Strain Theory

16  Created by Robert Merton  Theory that deviance is more likely to occur when a gap between cultural goals and the ability to achieve these goals by legitimate means.  Every society establishes goals and approved ways of reaching those goals. o Example: U.S. goal is wealth and possessions. o Education and hard work are the two means of achieving wealth and possessions

17 Culturally Approved Goal: Success Socially Accepted Way to Succeed: Hard Work Conformity ResponseDeviant ResponseExamples Accepts goal of successAccepts hard work as the appropriate way to succeed Conformity-Works hard to succeed Business Executive Accepts goal of successRejects hard work as the appropriate way to succeed Innovation-finds illegal ways to succeed Criminal Rejects goal of successAccepts hard work as the appropriate way to succeed Ritualism-acts as if he wants to succeed but does not exert much effort Unmotivated teacher Rejects goal of successRejects hard work as the appropriate way to succeed Retreatism-drops out of the race for success Skid row alcoholic Rejects goal of successRejects hard work as the appropriate way to succeed Rebellion-substitutes new way to achieve new goals Militia group member

18  There are four responses to The Strain Theory. o Innovation o Ritualism o Retreatism o Rebellion

19  The individual accepts the goal of success but uses illegal means to achieve it (deviant).  Robbery, drug dealing, or other criminal activities.  Most widespread and most obvious type of deviant response.

20  The individual rejects the goal of success but continues to use the legitimate means.  People go through the motions without really believing in the process.

21  Deviant response in which both the legitimate means and the approved goals are rejected.  Example: Alcoholics, drug addicts, and drop outs

22  People reject both success and the approved means for achieving it.  Substitute new goals and means (Example: militia group members).  Want to change society.  Example: Create their own currency, violate gun laws, and threatening law enforcement.

23  The Control Theory

24  Control Theory-theory that compliance with social norms requires strong bonds between individuals and society.  Social bonds o Attachment o Commitment o Involvement o Belief

25  Social Interactionism & Deviance

26  Emphasized the role of primary groups in transmitting deviance.  Deviance is transmitted through socialization in the same way that non-deviant behavior is transmitted.  Delinquent behavior can be transmitted from gangs to play groups.  Deviance is learned from peer pressure.

27 Three characteristics  Ratio of deviant behavior to non-deviant individuals. o Person who hangs with deviants is more likely to adopt deviant tendencies.  Whether the deviant behavior is practiced significant to others: o People are more likely to copy deviant behavior that are important to them.  The age of exposure of deviant behavior: o Younger children learn deviant behavior more quickly than other children.

28  Explains why deviance is relative.  Deviant behaviors are always a smaller of social definition.  Deviance only exists when others label one another as deviant.

29  Primary deviance: o Person engages in isolated acts of deviance.  Secondary deviance: o Deviance is a lifestyle and is a personal identity.

30  Stigma-an undesirable characteristic or label that is used to characterize an individual.  Example: An ex-convict isn’t accepted by society because he is labeled with the stigma as a “jailbird.

31  Conflict Theory & Deviance

32  Critics of industrial society are considered deviants because of their beliefs challenge its economic, political, and social basis.  Because industrial societies require a willing workforce. Those who will not work are considered deviant.  Those who threaten private property, especially that belonging to the rich, are prime targets for punishments.  People who show a lack of respect for authority are treated as deviants.  Violent behavior in sports is accepted because it fosters competition, achievement, teamwork, and winning.

33  Supporters of the conflict theory of deviance believe that minorities receive unequal punishment and treatment under the law.  African Americans and Hispanics are dealt more harshly with than whites. o More likely to be convicted and serve longer time.

34  Conflict theory suggests: o Minorities generally do not have the economic resources to buy good legal services. o Crimes against whites tend to be more punished more severely than crimes against minorities. o Victim discounting-process of reducing the seriousness of the crimes that injure people of the lower status.

35  White collar crime-job related crime committed by high status people.  Economic crimes such as price fixing, insider trading, illegal rebates, embezzlement, bribery, etc.

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