Presentation on theme: "Measuring Migrant Stock in the Russian Federation (and selected CIS countries) Olga Chudinovskikh Moscow State Lomonosov University."— Presentation transcript:
Measuring Migrant Stock in the Russian Federation (and selected CIS countries) Olga Chudinovskikh Moscow State Lomonosov University
Overview UN approach to migrant stock estimation in the CIS countries: do the UN definitions always guarantee a correct result? Evolution in tradition of migrants’ identification in RF and USSR What data valid for migrants stock estimation do the national censuses (Round 2000) in the CIS countries present? Data sources (related to migrants stock) in the Russian Federation Conclusions
UN DESA Population Division: Trends In Total Migrant Stock: The 2005 Revision The United States is the largest recipient of international migrants, with 38 migrants in 2005. It is followed by the Russian Federation (12 million), Germany (10 million), Ukraine, France and Saudi Arabia (with over 6million international migrants each).
( International) migrant definition in the USSR and the RF statistics and science Before 1990- main problems: to decrease migration from ruarl areas and to stimulate migration to the regions of rapid industrial development. No experience of international migration estimation (no special methodology, no special definitions) Demographic encyclopedia published in 1985 defined only “a migrant” as “a person who migrates, i.e. crosses the administrative borders of territories and changes place of residence for more or less long period”. Criteria for statistical observation both of internal and international migrants in the USSR and Russia : neither citizenship, nor place of birth criterion is used. Since 2002- citizenship is one of migrant’s characteristics. - 1992-1993 – refugees and forced migrants definitions, - 2002 – foreign citizens and stateless persons definition - No concrete definiton of an international migrant (Inertia or heritage of the past)
Possible sources of data for migrant stock estimation in the CIS countries: Census Administrative records (residents with permits, foreign workers, foreign students, refugees, etc.)
Place of birth Citizenship Had lived in the place of residence since birth / not since birth If not – since what year – Previous place of residence (RF – for those who moved after1989) In some countries- place of residence at the census moment (Moldova), - If was temporary absent – (period of absence ) (Azerbaijan ), Refugees or deported (Ukraine, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan) + Languages, ethnicity In the RF census program place of previous residence was mentioned only by those who arrived in 1989-2002 and related to the date of the previous census: Where lived in 1989 (Region, Rural or Urban area) Census : the main source of data for migrants stock estimation. Questions related to migration in the CIS Censuses (Round 2000) programmes
Foreign and foreign born population in selected CIS countries Born out of the rep. Foreign citizens % of population: Born out of the rep. % Foreign citizens Armenia28569527546 8,90%0,90% Ukraine5156240169122 10,70%0,40% Belarus1158815107756 11,50%1,10% Kazakhstan211317385205 14,10%0,60% Russian Federation119768221025413 8,30%1,00%
Foreign and foreign born population in selected CIS countries
Population (pers.) Born in the republic Born out of the rep.Nationals Citizens of the other countries and stateless pers. Armenia Abs.32130012927306285695318545527546 %100,0%91,1%8,9%99,1%0,9% Ukraine Abs.4824090243084662515624047950004169122 %100,0%89,3%10,7%99,4%0,4% Belarus Abs.10045237888642211588159934539107756 %100%88,5%11,5%98,9%1,1% Kazakhstan Abs.149531261283976121131731486792185205 %100,0%85,9%14,1%99,4%0,6% Russian Federation Abs.145166731 13160872011976822 1424424041025413 %100%90,7%8,3%98,1%1,0%
Period of residence criteria Distribution of life-time migrants (born abroad) by period of residence in selected CIS countries Source: National censuses data (Round 2000) Period of residence (years) After the break out of the USSR Before the break out of the USSR 5 and < 6 -- 9 10 and moretotal UkraineAbs. 35112342345143773545.156.240778.886 4.377.35 4 % 6,8%8,2%84,9%100%15%85% BelarusAbs. 1988831997388644021.263.023398.621864.402 % 15,7%15,8%68,4%100,0%32%68%
Ethnicity as a criterion for migrants stock estimation One must be very careful using this criterion RF population – 190 ethnic groups, Ukraine, Belarus population - more than 130 ethnic groups Partially can be applied to some categories of migrants to monitor their presence in the country. Self-identification – reliability can not be proven Thousand 19892002 2002/ 1989 (%) Armeinan 5321130212,4 Azerbaijani 336622185,1 Russian 119866115889 97,6%
Percentage and dynamics of titular population in selected CIS countries. (Source - National censuses (Round 2000) data, Statistics yearbook “CIS countries in 2002”) % of titular population Dynamics of titular population since the last USSR census (1989/ 2002 ) % of non- titular population Azerbaijan 90,6%1,249,4% Armenia 99,1%0,980,9% Belarus 81,2%1,0318,8% Kazakhstan 53,4%1,2346,6% Kyrgyzstan 64,9%1,4035,1% Russia 79,8%0,9720,2% Ukraine 77,8%1,00322,2%
Foreigners, foreign born and non-titular population in selected CIS countries- what criteria is the best?
Administrative records as a source for migrant stock estimation Foreign workers Refugees and asylum seekers Data based on registration of foreigners Data on residence permits…
Refugees (forced migrants) in the RF Stock of forced migrants total 20022003 20042005 2050447264 291 8 914 Variables : Previous place of residence New place of residence (RF regions) Number of applications Age and sex composition Level of education Ethnicity Etc.
Foreign labour force- uncertainty of definitions Total foreign labore force in 2005 Data on 01.01 2005 Arrivals 2005 Departur es 2005 Data on 31.12. 2005 Foreign workers in the RF702500256336446164258599443901
Duration of foreign workers employment in the RF (Arrived in 2005)
Problem of estimation of long- term visa holders Categories of visa in the RF (each includes subcategories) Private (short term < or = 3 months) Business (most of subcategories of this visa holders could be long-term migrants: 3 m., then - up to 12 months, and could be extended) Tourist (short-term < or = 1 month ) Student (many of visa holders are long-term extended up to 12 months and more) Job (most of subcategories could be long term) Humanitarian (could be long-term) Asylum (long term) Transit – up to 10 days
RF Census 2010 migration related questions for residents Place of birth Citizenship: RF, other, How did you get the RF citizenship – by birth of as the USSR passport holder? Or – By naturalization ? Previous citizenship When – did you get the RF citizenship? Your ethnicity Have you ever lived abroad for more than 1 year? Where did you arrived in the RF? etc
Foreign population central data bank Planned to be created by January 2007), responsible authority – Federal Migration service Stage 1 (Ministry of home affairs data) 1. Migration cards information on arrivals and departures of foreigners 2. Data on refugees and asylum seekers 3. Foreign workers data Stage 2 (Ministry of home affairs data) 4. Residence permits, temporary residence permits and stay permits 5. Information on crimes committed against foreigners and by foreigners Stage 3 (other ministries data) 6. Federal border service data 7. Visas and invitations statistics 8. Customs Committee data 9. Ministry of taxes data 10. Other ministries and authorities data on foreigners Stage 4 Information exchange and distribution (rules are not defined)
Why data on migrants stock are considered to be important? They are supposed to create a background for the estimation of economic, political and cultural consequences of foreign migrants’ presence in the country, their interaction with local population, etc. Concerns of immigrants integration
Migrants who moved before the break out of the USSR (and partially – after) needed adaptation rather than integration: Majority of them spoke the same language, had common cultural origin, were born in the same country and were nationals of the same state
Experts’ point of view: Who is an international migrant? (Experts – statisticians, migration service officers, researchers.) Whom do you consider to be a long-term international migrant? ( RF – 12 experts, other CIS count. – 6 experts)YesNo 1. Foreign born residents of your country (citizenship in not considered) 6 (CIS-4) 12 (CIS-2) 2. Citizens of the other countries (place of birth in not considered)153 3. Nationals of your country who returned after a long stay abroad810 4. Non- titular population in your country (having titular states abroad)11717 5. Children of foreigners who live in your country and were born in you country71 6. Those who arrived in your republic: 6.1. before the collapse of the USSR from the other Soviet republics 5 (CIS-3) 13 (CIS-3) 6.2. after the decay 18 (CIS-6)0 CIS COUNTRIES: Question 6.1 Ukraine, Kazakhstan 3 Moldova, Belarus, Azerbaijan 3 Question 6. 260
Concluding remarks No concrete or uniform definition of long-term international migrant in the CIS countries Censuses based data - prevalence of citizenship criterion Preferable source of data - administrative records – stocks of foreigners of different categories, as they are in focus of migration policy Ethnicity can not be (the main) criterion for migrant identification in the CIS countries Practical use of migrant stock estimation (foreign born definition) is not applicable everywhere. Historical background of population should be taken into account.