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CANDIDATI DI MATERIA OSCURA DA NUOVA FISICA DELLE PARTICELLE Antonio Masiero Univ. di Padova INFN, Padova MATERIA OSCURA, BOLOGNA, 14 DICEMBRE, 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "CANDIDATI DI MATERIA OSCURA DA NUOVA FISICA DELLE PARTICELLE Antonio Masiero Univ. di Padova INFN, Padova MATERIA OSCURA, BOLOGNA, 14 DICEMBRE, 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 CANDIDATI DI MATERIA OSCURA DA NUOVA FISICA DELLE PARTICELLE Antonio Masiero Univ. di Padova INFN, Padova MATERIA OSCURA, BOLOGNA, 14 DICEMBRE, 2007

2 UNIFICATION of FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS

3 THE G-W-S STANDARD MODEL

4 The HIGGS BOSON CONDENSATE SOMETHING fills the Universe: it disturbs Weak interactions making them SHORT-RANGED, while it does NOT affect gravity or electromagnetism. WHAT IS IT? Analogy with SUPERCONDUCTIVITY: in a superconductor the magnetic field gets repelled ( Meissner effect) and penetrates only over the penetration length, i.e. the magnetic field is short-ranged source which disturbs are the boson condensates, Cooper pairs. We are swimming in Higgs Boson Condensates its value at the minimum of its potential determines the masses of all particles!

5 Where all masses come from: the HIGGS mechanism The Higgs has already shown up as a VIRTUAL particle in electroweak radiative effects THE HIGGS MECHANISM CAN BE REALIZED BY THE PRESENCE OF AN ELEMENTARY HIGGS PARTICLE

6 INDICAZIONI DI NUOVA FISICA AL DI LA DEL MODELLO STANDARD MASSA DEI NEUTRINI ESISTENZA DI MATERIA OSCURA NON COSTITUITA DALLA SOLITA MATERIA (protoni, neutroni) ASIMMETRIA COSMICA TRA MATERIA E ANTIMATERIA: ESISTENZA DI UNA NUOVA SORGENTE DI VIOLAZIONE DI CP OLTRE A QUELLA PREVISTA DAL MODELLO STANDARD DOMANDE FONDAMENTALI A CUI IL MODELLO STANDARD NON RISPONDE: - UNIFICAZIONE DELLE FORZE FONDAMENTALI - MASSE E MESCOLAMENTI DEI FERMIONI - STABILITA DELLA SCALA DI ENERGIA A CUI I BOSONI W e Z PRENDONO MASSA ( circa 100 GeV)

7 MICROMACRO PARTICLE PHYSICSCOSMOLOGY GWS STANDARD MODEL HOT BIG BANG STANDARD MODEL HAPPY MARRIAGE Ex: NUCLEOSYNTHESIS BUT ALSO POINTS OF FRICTION -COSMIC MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY -INFLATION - DARK MATTER + DARK ENERGY OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE FOR NEW PHYSICS BEYOND THE (PARTICLE PHYSICS) STANDARD MODEL

8 THE ENERGY BUDGET OF THE UNIVERSE (as of Dec. 2007)

9 DM: the most impressive evidence at the quantitative and qualitative levels of New Physics beyond SM QUANTITATIVE: Taking into account the latest WMAP data which in combination with LSS data provide stringent bounds on DM and B EVIDENCE FOR NON-BARYONIC DM AT MORE THAN 10 STANDARD DEVIATIONS!! THE SM DOES NOT PROVIDE ANY CANDIDATE FOR SUCH NON- BARYONIC DM QUALITATIVE: it is NOT enough to provide a mass to neutrinos to obtain a valid DM candidate; LSS formation requires DM to be COLD NEW PARTICLES NOT INCLUDED IN THE SPECTRUM OF THE FUNDAMENTAL BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE SM !

10 THE RISE AND FALL OF NEUTRINOS AS DARK MATTER Massive neutrinos: only candidates in the SM to account for DM. From here the prejudice of neutrinos of a few eV to correctly account for DM Neutrinos decouple at ~1 MeV ; being their mass<

11 LSS PATTERN AND NEUTRINO MASSES (E..g., Ma 1996) m = 0 eVm = 1 eV m = 7 eVm = 4 eV

12 Cosmological Bounds on the sum of the masses of the 3 neutrinos from increasingly rich samples of data sets

13 TEN COMMANDMENTS TO BE A GOOD DM CANDIDATE TO MATCH THE APPROPRIATE RELIC DENSITY TO BE COLD TO BE NEUTRAL TO BE CONSISTENT WITH BBN TO LEAVE STELLAR EVOLUTION UNCHANGED TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH CONSTRAINTS ON SELF – INTERACTIONS TO BE CONSISTENT WITH DIRECT DM SEARCHES TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH GAMMA – RAY CONSTRAINTS TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH OTHER ASTROPHYSICAL BOUNDS TO BE PROBED EXPERIMENTALLY BERTONE, A.M., TAOSO

14 WIMPS (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) # ~# m # exp(-m /T) # does not change any more T decoupl. typically ~ m /20 depends on particle physics ( annih. ) and cosmological quantities (H, T 0, … h 2 _ ~ TeV 2 ~ 2 / M 2 From T 0 M Planck h 2 in the range to be cosmologically interesting (for DM) m ~ GeV (weak interaction) h 2 ~ !!!

15 INDICAZIONI DI NUOVA FISICA AL DI LA DEL MODELLO STANDARD MASSA DEI NEUTRINI ESISTENZA DI MATERIA OSCURA NON COSTITUITA DALLA SOLITA MATERIA (protoni, neutroni) ASIMMETRIA COSMICA TRA MATERIA E ANTIMATERIA: ESISTENZA DI UNA NUOVA SORGENTE DI VIOLAZIONE DI CP OLTRE A QUELLA PREVISTA DAL MODELLO STANDARD DOMANDE FONDAMENTALI A CUI IL MODELLO STANDARD NON RISPONDE: - UNIFICAZIONE DELLE FORZE FONDAMENTALI - MASSE E MESCOLAMENTI DEI FERMIONI - STABILITA DELLA SCALA DI ENERGIA A CUI I BOSONI W e Z PRENDONO MASSA ( circa 100 GeV)

16 LOW-ENERGY SUSY AND UNIFICATION

17 MASS PROTECTION For FERMIONS, VECTOR (GAUGE) and SCALAR BOSONS -FERMIONS chiral symmetry f L f R not invariant under SU(2)x U(1) -VECTOR BOSONS gauge symmetry SIMMETRY PROTECTION FERMIONS and W,Z VECTOR BOSONS can get a mass only when the elw. symmetry is broken m f, m w NO SYMMETRY PROTECTION FOR SCALAR MASSES INDUCED MASS PROTECTION Create a symmetry (SUPERSIMMETRY) Such that FERMIONS BOSONS So that the fermion mass protection acts also on bosons as long as SUSY is exact SUSY BREAKING ~ SCALE OF 0 ( Gev) LOW ENERGY SUSY

18 The Energy Scale from the Observational New Physics neutrino masses dark matter baryogenesis inflation NO NEED FOR THE NP SCALE TO BE CLOSE TO THE ELW. SCALE The Energy Scale from the Theoretical New Physics Stabilization of the electroweak symmetry breaking at M W calls for an ULTRAVIOLET COMPLETION of the SM already at the TeV scale + CORRECT GRAND UNIFICATION CALLS FOR NEW PARTICLES AT THE ELW. SCALE

19 IS THE FINE-TUNING A REAL PROBLEM? WARNING: THERE EXISTS AN EVEN LARGER HIERARCHY OR FINE -TUNING OR NATURALNESS PROBLEM: THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT PROBLEM ( THE MOTHER OF ALL NATURALNESS PROBLEMS); SO FAR, WE SIMPLY ACCEPT SUCH FINE-TUNING! (OUTRAGEOUS) POSSIBILITY: THE THEORY OF EVERYTHING COULD BE UNIQUE, BUT WITH MANY (INFINITE?) VACUA EACH GIVING RISE TO A DIFFERENT UNI-VERSE ( MULTI-VERSE POSSIBILITY ). WE CAN LIVE ONLY IN THE VERY RESTRICTED CLASS OF THE MULTI-VERSE SPACE WHERE THE BOUDARY CONDITIONS ( FOR INSTANCE, THE VALUE OF THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT OR THE SCALE OF THE ELW.SYMMETRY BREAKING AND, HENCE, THE HIGGS MASS) EXHIBIT VALUES ALLOWING FOR THE CORRECT BBN, LSS,… OUR LIFE! ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE

20 HOW TO COPE WITH THE HIERARCHY PROBLEM LOW-ENERGY SUSY LARGE EXTRA DIMENSIONS DYNAMICAL SYMMETRY BREAKING OF THE ELW. SYMMETRY LANDSCAPE APPROACH (ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE)

21 STRADE PER ANDARE AL DI LA DEL MODELLO STANDARD 1) NON ESISTE NESSUNA SCALA DI ENERGIA OLTRE QUELLA DEL MS: la gravita e una forza molto debole perche esistono NUOVE DIMENSIONI oltre alle 3+1 spazio-temporali nostre VISIBILITA A LHC: ESISTONO STATI ECCITATI ( DI KALUZA-KLEIN) ED ALCUNI SONO A SCALA ACCESSIBILE A LHC ( il piu leggero KK puo essere una particella stabile e costituire la materia oscura)

22 STRADE OLTRE SM (II) 2) NON ESISTE IL PROBLEMA DI TRATTENERE LA MASSA DEL BOSONE DI HIGGS A 100 GEV PERCHE LHIGGS E UN OGGETTO COMPOSTO VISIBILITA A LHC: NUOVE INTERAZIONI CHE PRODUCONO IL CONDENSATO DI FERMIONI CHE CHIAMIAMO HIGGS ( nuove risonanze, nuovi stati legati, una nuova QCD a 1 TeV)

23 STRADE OLTRE SM (III) 3) LA MASSA DELLHIGGS E PROTETTA A 100 – 1000 GEV PERCHE ESISTE UNA NUOVA SIMMETRIA, LA SUPERSIMMETRIA VISIBILITA A LHC: VEDREMO LE PARTICELLE SUPERSIMMETRICHE E LE LORO INTERAZIONI. LA PIU LEGGERA PARTICELLA SUSY PUO ESSERE STABILE E COSTITUIRE LA MATERIA OSCURA. AL TEMPO STESSO POTREMMO SCOPRIRE SUSY E LA SORGENTE DEL 90% DELLA MATERIA PRESENTE NELLUNIVERSO

24 HIERARCHY PROBLEM: THE SUSY WAY SUSY HAS TO BE BROKEN AT A SCALE CLOSE TO 1TeV LOW ENERGY SUSY m 2 2 Scale of susy breaking F F f f B B Sm 2 ~( B - 2 f ) [m 2 B - m 2 F ] 1/2 ~ 1/G F B F In SUSY multiplet SPLITTING IN MASS BETWEEN B and F of O ( ELW. SCALE)

25 IS SUSY PRESENT IN NATURE? I think that it is very likely that SUSY is present as a fundamental symmetry of Nature: it is the most general symmetry compatible with a good and honest QFT, it is likely to be needed to have a consistent STRING theory ( super-string), in its local version ( local supersymmetry or supergravity) it paves the way to introduce and quantize GRAVITY in a unified picture of ALL FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS Much more debatable is whether it should be a LOW-ENERGY SYMMETRY ( i.e. effectively broken at the elw. Scale) or a HIGH-ENERGY SYMMETRY (i.e. broken at the Planck scale, or at the string compactification scale)

26 D. KAZAKOV

27

28 IN SUSY WE NEED TO INTRODUCE AT LEAST TWO HIGGS DOUBLETS IN ORDER TO PROVIDE A MASS FOR BOTH THE UP- AND DOWN- QUARKS

29 BREAKING SUSY The world is clearly not supersymmetric: for instance, we have not seen a scalar of Q=1 and a mass of ½ MeV, i.e. the selectron has to be heavier than the electron and, hence, SUSU has to be broken SUSY HAS TO BE BROKEN AT A SCALE > 100 GeV SINCE NO SUSY PARTNERS HAVE BEEN SEEN UP TO THOSE ENERGIES, roughly COLORED S-PARTICLE MASSES > 200 GeV UNCOLORED S- PARTICLE MASSES > 100 GeV

30 WHICH SUSY HIDDEN SECTOR SUSY BREAKING AT SCALE F OBSERVABLE SECTOR SM + superpartners MSSM : minimal content of superfields MESSENGERS F = M W M Pl GRAVITY M gravitino ~ F/M Pl ~ ( ) GeV GAUGE INTERACTIONS F = ( ) GeV M gravitino ~ F/M Pl ~ ( )eV

31 THE FATE OF B AND L IN THE SM AND MSSM IN THE SM B AND L ARE AUTOMATIC SYMMETRIES: NO B or L VIOLATING OPERATOR OF DIM.4 INVARIANT UNDER THE GAUGE SIMMETRY SU(3) X SU(2) X U(1) IS ALLOWED ( B AND L ARE CONSERVED AT ANY ORDER IN PERTURBATION THEORY, BUT ARE VIOLATED AT THE QUANTUM LEVEL (ONLY B – L IS EXACTLY PRESERVED ) IN THE MSSM, THANKS TO THE EXTENDED PARTICLE SPECTRUM WITH NEW SUSY PARTNERS CARRYING B AND L, IT IS POSSIBLE TO WRITE ( RENORMALIZABLE) OPERATORS WHICH VIOLATE EITHER B OR L IF BOTH B AND L VIOLATING OPERATORS ARE PRESENT, GIVEN THAT SUSY PARTNER MASSES ARE OF O(TEV), THERE IS NO WAY TO PREVENT A TOO FAST PROTON DECAY UNLESS THE YUKAWA COUPLINGS ARE INCREDIBLY SMALL!

32 D. kAZAKOV

33 ADDITIONAL DISCRETE SYMMETRY IN THE MSSM TO SLOW DOWN P - DECAY SIMPLEST (and nicest) SOLUTION: ADD A SYMMETRY WHICH FORBIDS ALL B AND L VIOLATING OPERATORS R PARITY SINCE B AND L 4-DIM. OPERATORS INVOLVE 2 ORDINARY FERMIONS AND A SUSY SCALAR PARTICLE, THE SIMPLEST WAY TO ELIMINATE ALL OF THEM: R = +1 FOR ORDINARY PARTICLES R = - 1 FOR SUSY PARTNERS IMPLICATIONS OF IMPOSING R PARITY : i) The superpartners are created or destroyed in pairs ; ii) THE LIGHTEST SUPERPARTNER (LSP) IS ABSOLUTELY STABLE

34 BROKEN R PARITY PROTON DECAY REQUIRES THE VIOLATION OF BOTH B AND L NOT NECESSARY TO HAVE R PARITY TO KILL B AND L VIOLATING OPERATORS ENOUGH TO IMPOSE AN ADDITIONAL DISCRETE SYMMETRY TO FORBID EITHER B OR L VIOLATING OPERATORS; RESTRICTIONS ON THE YUKAWA COUPLINGS OF THE SURVIVING B OR L VIOLATING OPERATORS

35 D. KAZAKOV 124 FREE PARAM.

36 CMSSM + RADIATIVE ELW. BREAKING: A 4 – PARAMETER WORLD FREE PARAM. IN THE CMSSM : IMPOSING THE RAD. BREAKING OF THE ELW. SYMMETRY ONE ESTABLISHES A RELATION BETWEEN THE ELW. BREAKING SCALE AND THE SOFT SUSY PARAMETERS FURTHER REDUCING THE NUMBER OF THE FREE PARAM. IN THE CMSSM TO FOUR, FOR INSTANCE THE FIRST FOUR PARAM. ABOVE + THE SIGN OF µ ( THE ELW. SYMM. BREAKING FIXES ONLY THE SQUARE OF µ

37 A FEW % FINE-TUNING ON THE SUSY PARAM. IS NEEDED TO AVOID CONFLICT WITH SUSY AND HIGGS SEARCHES

38 SUSY & DM : a successful marriage Supersymmetrizing the SM does not lead necessarily to a stable SUSY particle to be a DM candidate. However, the mere SUSY version of the SM is known to lead to a too fast p-decay. Hence, necessarily, the SUSY version of the SM has to be supplemented with some additional ( ad hoc?) symmetry to prevent the p- decay catastrophe. Certainly the simplest and maybe also the most attractive solution is to impose the discrete R-parity symmetry MSSM + R PARITY LIGHTEST SUSY PARTICLE (LSP) IS STABLE. The LSP can constitute an interesting DM candidate in several interesting realizations of the MSSM ( i.e., with different SUSY breaking mechanisms including gravity, gaugino, gauge, anomaly mediations, and in various regions of the parameter space).

39 STABLE ELW. SCALE WIMPs from PARTICLE PHYSICS 1) ENLARGEMENT OF THE SM SUSY EXTRA DIM. LITTLE HIGGS. (x, ) (x, j i) SM part + new part Anticomm. New bosonic to cancel 2 Coord. Coord. at 1-Loop 2) SELECTION RULE DISCRETE SYMM. STABLE NEW PART. R-PARITY LSP KK-PARITY LKP T-PARITY LTP Neutralino spin 1/2 spin1 spin0 3) FIND REGION (S) PARAM. SPACE WHERE THE L NEW PART. IS NEUTRAL + L h 2 OK * But abandoning gaugino-masss unif. Possible to have m LSP down to 7 GeV m LSP ~ GeV * m LKP ~ GeV m LTP ~ GeV Bottino, Donato, Fornengo, Scopel

40 WHO IS THE LSP? SUPERGRAVITY ( transmission of the SUSY breaking from the hidden to the obsevable sector occurring via gravitational interactions): best candidate to play the role of LSP: NEUTRALINO ( i.e., the lightest of the four eigenstates of the 4x4 neutralino mass matrix) In CMSSM: the LSP neutralino is almost entirely a BINO

41 GRAVITINO LSP? GAUGE MEDIATED SUSY BREAKING (GMSB) : LSP likely to be the GRAVITINO ( it can be so light that it is more a warm DM than a cold DM candidate ) Although we cannot directly detect the gravitino, there could be interesting signatures from the next to the LSP ( NLSP) : for instance the s-tau could decay into tau and gravitino, Possibly with a very long life time, even of the order of days or months

42 SEARCHING FOR WIMPs WIMPS HYPOTHESIS DM made of particles with mass 10Gev - 1Tev ELW scale With WEAK INTERACT. LHC, ILC may PRODUCE WIMPS WIMPS escape the detector MISSING ENERGY SIGNATURE FROM KNOWN COSM. ABUNDANCE OF WIMPs PREDICTION FOR WIMP PRODUCTION AT COLLIDERS WITHOUT SPECYFING THE PART. PHYSICS MODEL OF WIMPs BIRKEDAL, MATCHEV, PERELSTEIN, FENG,SU, TAKAYAMA

43 Tightness of the DM constraints in Minimal Supergravity Ellis, Olive, Santoso, Spanos

44 LFV - DM CONSTRAINTS IN MINIMAL SUPERGRAVITY A.M., Profumo, Vempati, Yaguna

45 DM SUSY:HOW FAR ARE WE IN DIRECT SEARCHES? Ellis et al.

46 A.M., PROFUMO, ULLIO

47 SPIN - INDEPENDENT NEUTRALINO - PROTON CROSS SECTION FOR ONE OF THE SUSY PARAM. FIXED AT 10 TEV

48 A.M., PROFUMO,ULLIO

49

50

51 DMDE DO THEY KNOW EACH OTHER? DIRECT INTERACTION (quintessence) WITH DARK MATTER DANGER: Very LIGHT m ~ H 0 -1 ~ eV Threat of violation of the equivalence principle constancy of the fundamental constants,… INFLUENCE OF ON THE NATURE AND THE ABUNDANCE OF CDM Modifications of the standard picture of WIMPs FREEZE - OUT CDM CANDIDATES CATENA, FORNENGO, A.M., PIETRONI, SCHELKE

52 NEUTRALINO RELIC ABUNDANCE IN GR AND S-T THEORIES OF GRAVITY WITH ENHANCED H

53 REGIONS OF THE BULK SUSY PARAM. SPACE WHERE THE NEUTRALINO RELIC ABUNDANCE FALLS IN THE COSMOLOGICAL INTERVAL FOR COLD DM TANBETA=10 A=0 AND µ > 0 GR ST WITH REDUCED H CATENA, FORNENFO, A.M., PIETRONI, SCHELKE (in progress) IF H IS REDUCED W.R.T. THE GR CASE

54 FCNC, CP, (g-2), ( ) 0 m n … LINKED TO COSMOLOGICAL EVOLUTION Possible interplay with dynamical DE NEW PHYSICS AT THE ELW SCALE DM - FLAVOR for DISCOVERY and/or FUND. TH. RECONSTRUCTION A MAJOR LEAP AHEAD IS NEEDED LFV NEUTRINO PHYSICSLEPTOGENESIS TEVATRON I L C INFLATION

55 BACK-UP SLIDES

56 Tightness of the DM constraint on minimal supergravity Ellis, Olive, Santoso, Spanos

57 Tightness …3

58 REACH OF FUTURE FACILITIES FOR NEUTRALINO DETECTION THROUGH ANTIMATTER SEARCHES WITH FIXED M 1 = 500 GEV N03 adiabatically contracted profile Burkert profile

59


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