Presentation on theme: "The rules and the exceptions."— Presentation transcript:
1 The rules and the exceptions. Plural NounsThe rulesand the exceptions.
2 Add –s to most nouns skateboard – skateboards painting – paintings ticket – ticketsbee - bees
3 Add –es to nouns that end with a hissing sound (s, ss, sh, ch, x, z, zz) wrench – wrencheswalrus – walrusescompass - compassestoolbox – toolboxesbuzz of bees - buzzes of bees
4 Add –s to most nouns that end in o preceded by a vowel or consonant Words that follow the rule:Exceptions to the rule:radio – radiospiano – pianosauto – autosigloo – igloospotato – potatoestomato - tomatoesecho – echoeshero – heroesjingo – jingoesno – noes
5 More o exceptions: Some nouns ending with the letter o preceded by a consonant can form the plural two wayszero - zeros or zeroesbuffalo – buffalos or buffaloescargo – cargos or cargoesdesperado – desperados or desperadoeshalo – halos or haloesmosquito – mosquitos or mosquitoes
6 When a noun ends in y monkey – monkeys butterfly – butterflies If a vowel comes before the y, just add -sIf a consonant comes before the y, change the y to i and add esbutterfly – butterfliesflurry – flurriesdeputy – deputiesbattery – batteriesdairy - dairiesmonkey – monkeysalley – alleysplay – playsturkey - turkeys
7 Nouns Ending in f, fe, ff surf - surfs giraffe – giraffes Just add –s to a few nouns that end in f, fe, ffFor most nouns ending in f, fe, or ff, change the f to -vescalf - calveself - elveshalf - halvesknife - kniveslife - livesloaf - loavesself - selves (ourselves, yourselves, themselves)shelf - shelvesthief - thieveswife - wivessurf - surfsgiraffe – giraffescliff – cliffsbelief – beliefssafe – safeschef – chefsref - refs
8 MORE...Nouns Ending in f, fe, ff For some nouns ending in ife, change the f to a v and then add -sSome nouns ending in f, fe, ff have two forms of the pluralwife - wiveslife - livesknife - knivesdwarf - dwarfs or dwarveshoof - hoofs or hoovesscarf - scarfs or scarvesstaff - staffs or staveswharf - wharfs or wharves
9 Nouns Ending in i ski – skis alibi-alibis khaki-khakis rabbi-rabbis Some nouns ending with the letter i form the plural both by adding s and/or esMost nouns that end in i form the plural by adding the letter s.ski – skisalibi-alibiskhaki-khakisrabbi-rabbistaxi-taxis-taxiesalkali-alkalis-alkalieschili-chilies
10 Nouns That Have Irregular Plural Forms Some nouns change their vowels in the middle of the singular form when forming the pluralCompounds of words man and woman form plurals the same way:goose – geesefoot - feetlouse - liceman - menmouse - micetooth - teethwoman – womenmailman - mailmen
11 More... Nouns That Have Irregular Plural Forms Some words with descriptive adjectives and hyphens form the plural by adding the correct affix to the noun portion of the word.Several nouns form the plural by adding the letters -enchild - childrenox - oxenfather-in-law/fathers-in lawmother-in-law /mothers-in-lawbrother-in-law/ brothers-in-lawsister-in-law /sisters-in-lawattorney-general /attorneys-general
12 Even More... Nouns That Have Irregular Plural Forms There are a number of animals that have the same singular and plural form:There are also some animal names that form the plural using -s or -es form:bison - bisondeer - deermoose - moosesheep - sheepswine - swineantelope - antelope or antelopescod - cod or codselk - elk or elksfish - fish or fishesflounder - flounder or floundersgrouse - grouse or grousesherring - herring or herringsquail - quail or quailsreindeer - reindeer or reindeerssalmon - salmon or salmonsshrimp - shrimp or shrimpstrout - trout or trouts
13 If all else fails...Use a dictionary or spell check!