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WHAT IS SCIENCE? An organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world.

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Presentation on theme: "WHAT IS SCIENCE? An organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world."— Presentation transcript:

1 WHAT IS SCIENCE? An organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world.

2 WHAT IS SCIENCE? Science is a way of observing “ “ a way of thinking
“ “ a way of knowing

3 WHAT IS SCIENCE? Science only deals with the Natural World.
Never concern the supernatural phenomena of any kind

4 WHAT IS SCIENCE? Scientist collect and organize information in an orderly way Looking for patterns and connections among events

5 WHAT IS SCIENCE? Scientist propose explanations that are based on evidence. Then test those explanations with more evidence

6 The Process of Science Science is the quest to understand nature.

7 Biology The Study of Life

8 Biology… Explores life from the global to the microscopic.
This is an enormous amount of information!

9 Experimental Design

10 Problem Statement The question you are trying to solve. he primary purpose of a problem statement is to focus the attention of the problem solving team.

11 Forming and Testing a Hypothesis
Hypothesis – a suggested answer to a well-defined scientific question. An explanation on trial Are usually concerned with natural phenomena Often based on past experience of knowledge gained from discoveries or other sources

12 An Educated Guess People normally use hypothesis to solve everyday problems. After you propose a hypothesis – you test these ideas by making additional observations or designing an experiment.

13 Hypothesis – If…. Then….. Additional observations allows you to make predictions These predictions are tested. A Hypothesis is written as an If… Then… Statement. If a particular hypothesis is correct, and you test that hypothesis with a suitable experiment, then you should expect a certain result for the experiment.

14 Hypothesis An incorrect hypothesis does not mean failure
Just wrong The inquiry continues with test of alternative hypothesis. Even when an experiment supports a hypothesis curiosity can send you in a new direction.

15 What makes a Hypothesis Scientific?
Even if a hypothesis that stand-up to repeated testing may later be revised or even rejected. A change can occur when new tools make new kinds of observations and experiments are possible. The magnet core of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) particle accelerator in Geneva. Site of the discovery of the God particle

16 Observations & Data The questions that drive scientific inquiry are based on observation. Observation – the use of senses; such as vision/hearing; to gather and record information about structures or process. Data - recorded observation; items of information All observations depend on human senses. Scientific instruments vastly increase the range of possible observation

17 Data Quantitative Data – Recordable observations
Metric System Qualitative Data – data recorded as description instead of measurements Data can best support science when they are clearly organized, consistently recorded, and reliable. ie. Use tables

18 Designing a Controlled Experiment
Variable – A condition that can differ within the experiment Controlled Experiment – An experiment that test the effect of a single variable In a controlled experiment scientist try to eliminate (or control) other variables that could affect the outcome

19 Variables Variables could include temperature, humidity (if outside), light, and other weather conditions Even in a lab total regulation of all but one variable is not practical.

20 Eliminating Unwanted Variables
A Control Group Equals Cancelled out Experimental Group

21 Theory A well tested explanation that makes sense of a great variety of scientific observations Compared to hypothesis, a theory is much broader in scope.

22 Models Are physical, mental, or mathematical representations of how people understand a process or an idea.

23 Communication in Science
Many scientist work in teams and are good communicators They share information:

24 The Characteristics of Living Things
Living Things Reproduce All organisms reproduce. They produce new similar organisms Sexual Reproduction – Cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism Asexual Reproduction – a single organism produces offspring identical to itself.

25 The Characteristics of Living Things
Interaction with the Environment We are not isolated from our environment, No One Is! All organisms in an environment interacts continuously with its environment. Stimulus – a signal to which organism responds

26 The Characteristics of Living Things
Energy Moving, growing, reproducing, and other activities of life require organisms to perform work. Work depends on a source of energy We obtain energy in the chemical form, sugar, fats, etc. Metabolism – the combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials

27 The Characteristics of Living Things
Living Things are Made of Cells Organisms are composed of one or more cells The smallest units considered fully alive. Cells can grow Respond to the environment Despite their small size they are highly organized Phytoplankton – primary producer in the oceans and provides the majority of oxygen production on Earth

28 The Characteristics of Living Things
Regulation Organisms have the ability to regulate their internal conditions Sweating on a warm day Dogs panting to cool off Homeostasis – internal stability or “steady state” maintained by the body Mechanisms of homeostasis enables organisms to regulate internal environment, despite changes in their external environment.

29 The Characteristics of Living Things
Adaptation and Evolution Taken as a group living things evolve. Over generations, groups of organisms evolve, or change over time

30 The Characteristics of Living Things
Living things Grow and Develop During development a single egg divides again and again As cells divide they differentiate They begin to look different They perform different functions

31 The Characteristics of Living Things
Living Things are Based on a Universal Code All organisms store the information they need to live, grow, and reproduce in a genetic code written on a molecule called DNA. This information is passed from parent to offspring

32 10 Big Ideas Information and Heredity Matter and Energy
Genetic code and DNA Matter and Energy Life requires nutrients Creates a web of interdependent relationships between living things

33 10 Big Ideas Growth, Development, and Reproduction Homeostasis
All living things grow Generalized cells become specialized Babies become adults Homeostasis Stable environment

34 10 Big Ideas Cellular Basis of Life Evolution
All living things are made of cells The human body has more than 200 different types of cells Evolution Living things evolve as a group

35 10 Big Ideas Structure and Function Unity and Diversity of Life
Structures that make a function possible Wings on a bird Unity and Diversity of Life Life variety of life and life forms All are the same at the molecular level All made of carbon based molecules Store information in DNA Use proteins

36 10 Big Ideas Interdependence in Nature Science as a way of Knowing
All forms of life on Earth are connected into a Biosphere Relationships depend on the cycling of matter and the flow of energy Science as a way of Knowing Science is not a list of facts Explains the natural world in terms of natural forces Explains and predicts

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