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**Integers and Rational Numbers**

Positive and Negative Numbers, Opposites, and Absolute Value

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**What are positive numbers?**

A positive number is a number greater than zero. On a number line, positive numbers are located to the right of zero (on a vertical number line, positive numbers are located above zero). Positive numbers do not need a sign, but you may see them written with a “+” in front of them.

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**What are negative numbers?**

A negative number is a number less than zero. On a number line, negative numbers are located to the left of zero (or on a vertical number line, negative numbers are located below zero). A negative number will have a “ - ” in front of it. Ex: -9

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**Example of a number line showing positive and negative numbers**

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What About Zero? Zero is neither positive nor negative.

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What are Opposites? Every negative number is paired with a positive number. The numbers in the pair are the same distance from zero but in opposite directions on a number line. These number pairs are called opposites. Ex: -3 and 3 are opposites

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Opposites (cont.) Can you name another pair of numbers that are opposites?

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What are integers? Whole numbers and their opposites have a special name—integers. Integers are “counting numbers” and their opposites. Some examples of integers are: -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 Zero is an integer, but it is not positive nor negative.

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**Where do fractions fit in?**

Fractions also have opposites. For example, ½ and -1/2 are opposites. Positive and negative integers, as well as fractions, are called rational numbers. Rational numbers are numbers that can be expressed as one integer divided by another integer.

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What is Absolute Value? Absolute value is the distance of a number from zero on a number line. A distance cannot be negative, so absolute value will always be a positive number. To show absolute value, a number will be written between two bars as shown below:

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Absolute Value (cont.) Opposites have the same absolute value. Can you name two numbers that have the same absolute value?

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