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Lecture 7 Desktop Publishing IV – Spreadsheet Software Introduction to Information Technology With thanks to Dr. A. Zhang, Dr. Haipeng Guo, and Dr. David.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 7 Desktop Publishing IV – Spreadsheet Software Introduction to Information Technology With thanks to Dr. A. Zhang, Dr. Haipeng Guo, and Dr. David."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 7 Desktop Publishing IV – Spreadsheet Software Introduction to Information Technology With thanks to Dr. A. Zhang, Dr. Haipeng Guo, and Dr. David Chen Dr. Ken Tsang 曾镜涛 Email: Room E408 R9

2 2 Outline  What is Spreadsheet Software?  OpenOffice Calc Basics  Performing Calculations  Creating Chart

3 3 Spreadsheet Software  Another widely used application software Allows users to organize data in rows and columns and perform calculations on the data Rows and columns collectively are called worksheets Features from word processing  Spreadsheet organization Up to 255 worksheets 256 columns, and 65,536 rows Letters identify columns (A … IV) Numbers identify rows (1 …65536)

4 4 Spreadsheet Software  Cells A cell is the intersection of a column and a row 256 * 65,536 cells Identifies cells by the column and row, e.g. B6 Contains three types of data: labels, values, and formulas  Calculations Value – a number used in a calculation Formula – performs calculation to generate values Function – predefined formula

5 5 Spreadsheet Software  Recalculation One of the powerful features Making manual changes can be time-consuming and may result in new errors Making changes in an electronic worksheet is much easier and faster, and more accurate  Charting Depicts data in graphical form Line chart, shows a trend during a period of time Column chart, displays bars of various lengths to show the relationship of data Pie chart, shows the relationship of parts to a whole

6 6 OpenOffice Calc  Tool to create professional spreadsheets and charts  Calc window Many elements - Title bar, Menu bar, Tool bars, Formula bar, Worksheets, and Status bar Similar to OpenOffice Writer

7 7

8 8 Calc Window  Formula bar Name box Function Wizard, Sum, Function Cell entries (data) View > Formula bar  Worksheets Workbook 3 worksheets by default Cell address: A1, B6, E10,...

9 9  Status bar View > Status bar Statistics Calc Window

10 10  Start a workbook Click New icon or choose File > New  Enter text Simply click a cell and type  Enter numbers As values – right-aligned As labels – left-aligned  Automatic increase Drag the black square in the bottom-right corner of a cell Working with Worksheets

11 11 Working with Worksheets  Formatting numbers Add commas to separate thousands Specify number of decimal places Place a dollar sign ($) in front of the number Display as a percent Display as Date, time Several other options Format > Cells > Number

12 12 Working with Worksheets  Selecting cells F8 function key click the up-left first, press F8, click the lower-right mouse to drag Cells to selectMouse action One cellclick once in the cell Entire rowclick the row label Entire columnclick the column label Entire worksheetclick the whole sheet button Cluster of cellsdrag mouse over the cells

13 13  Moving quickly between cells Name Box F5  Resizing rows and columns Dragging the side line Format > Row/Column > Height/Width  Adding and renaming worksheets Worksheet tabs Add – Insert > Worksheet Rename – right-click the tab and select Rename Working with Worksheets

14 14 Performing Calculation  A distinguishing feature Otherwise it is not more than a large table  Formula calculations Must begin with equal sign “=” Performs calculations and displays the result Includes cell addresses Visible in the cell entries of the formula bar after execution  Point mode Enter a formula without typing cell addresses By clicking cells or using arrow keys

15 15 Formula Calculation  Example Calculating the sub total for a number of textbooks. The formula multiplies the quantity and price of each textbook and adds them together Formula is shown in the formula bar after

16 16 Performing Calculation  Cell addressing Identified by the column and row, e.g. B6 Records cell addresses in formulas in three ways Relative referencing Calling cells by just their column and row labels Cell addresses will be changed when copy them e.g. C1 "=(A1+B1)"  C2 "=(A2+B2)" Absolute referencing Accomplished by placing dollar signs "$" e.g. "=($A$1+$B$1)" Mixed referencing Only the row or column is fixed. e.g. "=(A$1+$B2)"

17 17 Performing Calculation  Reference operators refer to a cell or group of cells Range operator “:” TWO cell addresses separated by a colon Refers to ALL the cells included in the reference e.g. “A1:C3” includes A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3, C1, C2, and C3. Union operator “,” Two or more cells separated by a comma Refers ONLY to the cells (rather a range) e.g. “A7,B8,C9” includes only cells A7, B8, and C9

18 18 Performing Calculation  Linking worksheets Use the value from a cell in another worksheet Format: "sheet_name!cell_address" e.g.: "=A1+Sheet2.A2"

19 19 Performing Calculation – Functions  Functions Allow you to quickly perform calculations More efficient way than typing formula formula: "=D1+D2+D3+D4+D5+D6+D7+D8+D9+D10" function: "=SUM(D1:D10)"  Format for using functions Use an equal sign to begin a formula Specify the function name Enclose arguments within parentheses Use a reference operator (a comma “,” or colon “:”) to separate arguments

20 20 Functions FunctionExampleDescription SUM=SUM(A1:100)finds the sum of cells A1 through A100 AVERAGE=AVERAGE(B1:B10)finds the average of cells B1 through B10 COUNT=COUNT(B1:B10) finds the number of items from cells B1 to B10 MAX=MAX(C1:C100) returns the highest number from cells C1 through C100 MIN=MIN(D1:D100) returns the lowest number from cells D1 through D100 SQRT=SQRT(D10) finds the square root of the value in cell D10 TODAY=TODAY() returns the current date (leave the parentheses empty)

21 21 Performing Calculation – Functions  The Sum icon Automatically adds a column of numbers Highlight all cells above current cell and add For empty column, Sum adds the row values  Recalculations Automatically recalculate when changing cell entries Tools > Cell Content > Recalculate

22 22 Performing Calculation – Sort  Sort on one column Sort Ascending button Sort Descending button  Sort on multiple columns Highlight all columns Data > Sort Select 1 st column (key word) in Sort By field Select 2 nd and 3 rd column in Then By field. Choose Header row or No header row box

23 23 Creating Charts  Charting – Another important feature Represent data in a visual format Often makes it easier to see the relationship Three popular types: Line chart – shows a trend during a period of time Column chart – displays bars of various lengths Pie chart – shows the relationship of parts to a whole Chart will automatically update if data changes  Chart Wizard Easy way to create charts Highlight all the cells and click Chart Wizard button

24 24 Chart Wizard  Step 1: Chart Type Choose the Chart type and the subtype if necessary from the first dialog box of Chart Wizard Click Next after selection

25 25 Chart Wizard  Step 2: Data Range Select the data range (if different from the area highlighted) by clicking the icon on the right You can choose to chart the data by columns or rows You can also choose to make the first row or column to be the label or not Press Next after you select

26 26 Chart Wizard  Step 3: Data Series Click the data series and modify the name and X or YValues in the data range If you want to change select different range for name or categories, click the icon on the right to select Press Next to move to the next step

27 27 Chart Wizard  Step 4: Chart Elements Enter the title and subtitle of the chart, and that of the X and Y axes Other options for the grid lines and legend Press Finish after selection to create the chart

28 Editing Charts  Editing a chart Right click the chart, select Edit in the pop-down menu, then a different menu will be generated for chart editing If you want to edit the format of the chart, you can select any relating selection – Format > Title, Axis, Grid, Legend, Chart wall, Chart area, Chart types, Data ranges, etc. 28 Select an object in the chart, you can edit its properties -- Format > Object Properties Note that any part of a chart you want to format can be selected

29 29 Summary  Spreadsheet software Allows users to organize data in rows and columns and perform calculations on the data  OpenOffice Calc Windows Worksheets Performing calculations Creating charts

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