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Settlement Characteristics

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Presentation on theme: "Settlement Characteristics"— Presentation transcript:

1 Settlement Characteristics
These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. 1 of 34 © Boardworks Ltd 2005

2 How can we describe settlements?
area site population shape situation function

3 Learning objectives What is a site? What are site factors?
What is situation? How can the shape of a settlement be classified? What is the function of a settlement? Learning objectives

4 Where were settlements built and why?
Site: describes the actual land upon which a settlement is built. Physical factors were most important in the initial choice of a site. shelter fuel protection from the enemy water supply fertile soil building materials Can you think of any more factors?

5 Learning objectives What is a site? What are site factors?
What is situation? How can the shape of a settlement be classified? What is the function of a settlement? Learning objectives

6 Aspect and shelter Settlements were built in sheltered areas such as valleys or in bays on coastal locations. Aspect (the direction in which a settlement faces) was also an important consideration. Settlements would be more ideally located on south-facing slopes in the Northern Hemisphere and on north-facing slopes in the Southern Hemisphere. For example, in Britain, it was an advantage to be sheltered from cold winds blowing from the north, and to be facing south which meant more sunlight. settlements on south-facing slopes receive more heat and sunlight N S sun is in the south Northern Hemisphere

7 Aspect and shelter The town of Bradford-Upon-Avon in Wiltshire is located on a steep, south-facing slope.

8 Settlement sites Some settlement sites had specific advantages
bridging point dry-point nodal point Where a river was shallow enough to be crossed (a ford) or narrow enough to easily build a bridge (e.g. Oxford). In especially wet areas, settlements were built on slightly raised land to avoid flooding or the unhealthy marshland (e.g. Ely in Cambridgeshire). Where natural routes meet, such as several valleys (e.g. York) or at the confluence of two rivers (e.g. St Louis on the Mississippi).

9 Settlement sites Some settlement sites had specific advantages.
defensive wet-point In order to protect themselves from attack, settlements were built within a river meander, with the river giving protection on three sides, e.g. Shrewsbury, or on a hill with good views, e.g. Edinburgh. These settlements were built at a source of water in an otherwise dry area. For example, in lowland Britain, many settlements were built at springs at the foot of chalk escarpments, e.g. Kemsingat near the North Downs.

10 Sites for settlements

11 Which is the best site for a settlement?
Imagine that you and your tribe have just arrived in this area. As the leader, you have to choose the best site for your village. How will you decide between sites A, B, C and D?

12 Which is the best site for a settlement?
Write a paragraph to explain your choice of site. You should aim to refer to a wide range of factors.

13 How can you identify site factors using maps?
Clues: the name of the settlement, relief, rivers etc.

14 The site of Guildford Draw an annotated sketch map of Guildford to identify its original site factors. Watch the animation first to help you!

15 The site of Guildford

16 How important are physical site factors today?
Technology means that many site factors are no longer very critical in influencing the site of a settlement. For example, water is piped, road networks allow the delivery of food supplies via supermarkets, and computers and the internet provide communication. Political, social or economic factors are usually more important. In August 2004, the South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun announced that the capital was to relocate in order to ease overcrowding, redistribute the state’s wealth and lessen the danger of attack by North Korea. Seoul has been the capital since The new city will be located 100 miles to the south. Construction is scheduled to begin in 2007 and completed by The government estimates costs at 45 trillion won, or 40 billion US dollars.

17 Learning objectives What is a site? What are site factors?
What is situation? How can the shape of a settlement be classified? What is the function of a settlement? Learning objectives

18 What is the situation of a settlement?
Situation: describes where a settlement is located in relation to other surrounding features such as other settlements, rivers and communications.

19 The situation of Guildford
Organise the following statements into a logical order. Then use them to write a paragraph describing the situation of Guildford. You may need an atlas to help! Now do the same for the settlement where you live!

20 Learning objectives What is a site? What are site factors?
What is situation? How can the shape of a settlement be classified? What is the function of a settlement? Learning objectives

21 How is the shape of a settlement classified?
Dispersed Nucleated or Compact Planned Linear or Street Ring or Green Cross

22 How is the shape of a settlement classified?
Linear Planned Ring Cross Dispersed Nucleated

23 What is the shape of each settlement?

24 Test your knowledge

25 Learning objectives What is a site? What are site factors?
What is situation? How can the shape of a settlement be classified? What is the function of a settlement? Learning objectives

26 What is the function of a settlement?
The function of a settlement relates to its economic and social development and refers to its main activities. settlement functions mining town route centre port manufacturing cultural/religious tourist resort residential administration commercial market town

27 Types of function

28 Functions Every settlement has a residential function.
Most settlements are multi-functional (have more than one function). In addition, most settlements have had a change in function from their original one. For example, Rhondda was originally a coal mining village but now has a tourist function (mining museum).

29 Guildford Study the next two slides showing photographs of Guildford and note the present day functions of this settlement. Is there any evidence of past functions?

30 The functions of Guildford

31 The functions of Guildford

32 The changing functions of Guildford

33 Settlement Functions

34 Key ideas Site describes the actual land upon which a settlement is built. Physical factors were most important in the initial choice of a site. Technology means that many site factors are no longer very critical in influencing the site of a settlement. Situation describes where a settlement is located in relation to other surrounding features such as other settlements, rivers and communications. Function relates to the economic and social development of a settlement and refers to its main activities. Most settlements are multi-functional. In addition, most settlements have had a change in function from their original one.


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