2Origins and UseABC Triangle, or the triangle of conflict, is one of the most popular and useful way to investigate and to illustrate the complexities of conflict.First developed by Johan Galtung, based on his research on the definitions of conflict, the triangle summarizes the elements or dimensions of conflict.ABC Triangle provides a useful framework to analyze the stakeholders/actors in a conflict situation, by going deeper into three important aspects of conflict dynamics: context, attitudes, and behavior.
3C: Context and Contradiction Refers to the incompatibility of goals (needs, interests) between parties to the conflict.Possible sources of incompatibility is different from conflict to conflict. Examples:Social structure vs. social values (caste system; patriarchy; rich-poor; ethnicity; religion)Scarcity (of oil, water, elected offices)Competition (for market share; in election; for power)Migration (rural to urban; north African countries to Europe)Change (social; political; economic; globalization; climate)Sources of incompatibility may overlap, creating more tension and increasing the stakes.Questions:What contradiction precedes the conflict you are dealing with?How is the contradiction built into the society?What are the contentious issues emerged from the incompatibility?How development programs build incompatibility into the society?
4A: AttitudesRefers to parties’ perception and other psychological conditions experienced by the parties in a conflict situation. Attitudes include cognitive aspects such as misperception, enemy construction, negative stereotypes, and feelings such as anger, hate, suspicion,Possible sources of conflict attitudes:Aggressive drivesIntra-personel tensionsAggregate frustrationsDehumanizationParties to a conflict develop different feelings, emotions, perceptions (and misperception) toward the other.Questions:What negative feelings and emotions developed among parties to the conflict you are dealing with?How do these maintained and sustained and through what processes?Do certain programs and policies created negative attitudes among the parties or beneficiaries?
5B: BehaviorRefers to the polarizing – and sometimes destructive – activities or actual behavior of the parties in a conflict.Examples: throwing, burning, killing, intimidating, shooting, demonstration, war, &c.&c.Questions:What conflict behaviors are used in a conflict situation you are dealing with?What strategy and tactics are used?What weapons are used in the conflict?What conflict behaviors emerged due to certain development programs and assistance in a community?
6Remember:Conflict can be negative/destructive in its process and outcome; it can be positive/constructive. Conflict does not equal violencePossible benefits of conflict:It create or foster social changeTransform latent conflict into manifest conflict amenable for resolution and transformationFocus energy and policy to important problems in the society and then to problem-solvingThe key is whether there is conflict management/transformation and if yes whether it is good or poor and whether it lead to violence or peace
7Strategies of Intervention Building a culture of peaceCreating a peace constituencyFriendshipHealingForgivenessAcceptance and recognitionModerating public discourseHumanitarian pauseCessation of hostilitiesDDRSALWLeadershipSkills in nonviolencePositive social contactsDeal with the attitudeDeal with the context and situationDeal with the behaviorDemocratizationElectionsMajority ruleMinority rightsYouthEconomic reform/conversionSecurity sector reform