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Rizal Panggabean. * ABC Triangle, or the triangle of conflict, is one of the most popular and useful way to investigate and to illustrate the complexities.

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Presentation on theme: "Rizal Panggabean. * ABC Triangle, or the triangle of conflict, is one of the most popular and useful way to investigate and to illustrate the complexities."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rizal Panggabean

2 * ABC Triangle, or the triangle of conflict, is one of the most popular and useful way to investigate and to illustrate the complexities of conflict. * First developed by Johan Galtung, based on his research on the definitions of conflict, the triangle summarizes the elements or dimensions of conflict. * ABC Triangle provides a useful framework to analyze the stakeholders/actors in a conflict situation, by going deeper into three important aspects of conflict dynamics: context, attitudes, and behavior.

3 * Refers to the incompatibility of goals (needs, interests) between parties to the conflict. * Possible sources of incompatibility is different from conflict to conflict. Examples: * Social structure vs. social values (caste system; patriarchy; rich-poor; ethnicity; religion) * Scarcity (of oil, water, elected offices) * Competition (for market share; in election; for power) * Migration (rural to urban; north African countries to Europe) * Change (social; political; economic; globalization; climate) * Sources of incompatibility may overlap, creating more tension and increasing the stakes. * Questions: * What contradiction precedes the conflict you are dealing with? * How is the contradiction built into the society? * What are the contentious issues emerged from the incompatibility? * How development programs build incompatibility into the society?

4 * Refers to parties’ perception and other psychological conditions experienced by the parties in a conflict situation. Attitudes include cognitive aspects such as misperception, enemy construction, negative stereotypes, and feelings such as anger, hate, suspicion, * Possible sources of conflict attitudes: * Aggressive drives * Intra-personel tensions * Aggregate frustrations * Dehumanization * Parties to a conflict develop different feelings, emotions, perceptions (and misperception) toward the other. * Questions: * What negative feelings and emotions developed among parties to the conflict you are dealing with? * How do these maintained and sustained and through what processes? * Do certain programs and policies created negative attitudes among the parties or beneficiaries?

5 * Refers to the polarizing – and sometimes destructive – activities or actual behavior of the parties in a conflict. * Examples: throwing, burning, killing, intimidating, shooting, demonstration, war, &c.&c. * Questions: * What conflict behaviors are used in a conflict situation you are dealing with? * What strategy and tactics are used? * What weapons are used in the conflict? * What conflict behaviors emerged due to certain development programs and assistance in a community?

6 * Conflict can be negative/destructive in its process and outcome; it can be positive/constructive. Conflict does not equal violence * Possible benefits of conflict: * It create or foster social change * Transform latent conflict into manifest conflict amenable for resolution and transformation * Focus energy and policy to important problems in the society and then to problem-solving * The key is whether there is conflict management/transformation and if yes whether it is good or poor and whether it lead to violence or peace

7 Deal with the attitude Deal with the context and situation Deal with the behavior Building a culture of peace Creating a peace constituency Friendship Healing Forgiveness Acceptance and recognition Moderating public discourse Democratization Elections Majority rule Minority rights Youth Economic reform/conversion Security sector reform Humanitarian pause Cessation of hostilities DDR SALW Leadership Skills in nonviolence Positive social contacts


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