Presentation on theme: "Academics' understandings of the research and teaching relationship; a preliminary report on research in university Education Departments in England and."— Presentation transcript:
1Academics' understandings of the research and teaching relationship; a preliminary report on research in university Education Departments in England and ScotlandRosemary Deem & Lisa LucasGraduate School of Education, University of Bristol
2IntroductionAcademic debates about teaching and research link tend to focus on: positive, negative, zero and complex correlations; the disadvantages to students; the different skills involved in the 2 activities and problem-based student learning as research oriented approachUK (mainly England) policy debates focus on the high cost of research/need to be selective and often stress the quality of non-research related teaching (though latter not borne out by QA outcomes)In USA has been emphasis on how to relate teaching/research for research intensive universities
3The Context of Contemporary Academic Work Teaching & research quality are now audited in many countries (Shah, 2000, von Tunzelmann, & Mbula 2003)Publicly funded HE increasingly permeated by new managerialism/new public management (Pollitt, 2003; Exworthy, 1999) with emphasis on performance/targetsProletarianisation of academic work (Halsey, 1992), manifested by declining pay/status, rising workloadsCountered by claims of communitarian re-professionalisation (Henkel, 2000): traditional values of research/teaching and attachment to subject/basic unit
4The Scotland/England Policy Context Since Scottish Parliament began in 1999 even greater divergence in education between England and ScotlandHE not exempt from this despite UK wide RAEE.g. Quality Assurance Scotland more developmental than QAA EnglandLess emphasis of Scotland separating teaching & research than EnglandNo CETLs but yearly L & T themes in ScotlandApplied Educational Research Scheme (AERS) SHEFC/SEED fosters HEI collaboration & different climate for Educational research
5The Research FocusTo explore aspects of the social relations and cultural organisation of research and teaching within five Education departments in UK universities.To examine the ways in which Education academics in England and Scotland perceive the links between research and teaching and where they think scholarship fits into this.To consider whether the different policy context of education and educational research in England and Scotland affects Education academics’ work in and their views about teaching and research.
6The Research Study: 1 Roadside University (post-92, 23,000 students) Townside University (pre-92, 17,000 students)Grant-town University (post-92, 10,000 students)Drayside University (pre-92, 20,000 students)Parkside University (pre-92, 14,000 students)All but one Education Department 40+ academic staff; cross section of RAE and QA grades
7The Research Study: 2 40 interviews, mainly face to face Interviewed in 2003 or 200421 in Scotland, 19 in England18 women, 21 menTaught on full range of programmesNot all respondents were entered in last RAE; not all are currently research-active
8Interviewees Career Backgrounds Entry point: many had entered academe in mid-life after successful professional career and often with some management experienceMore than half had more experience of professional practice and teaching than research at entry to HEEntry to HE part-time at first also evident for someSome still studying for postgraduate degrees at entryNew academics in Education departments often have to learn about research rather about than teaching, the reverse of many academics’ experience
9Perceptions of the relation between teaching and research (Robertson & Bond, 2001) Research and teaching are mutually incompatible activitiesLittle or no connection exists between research and teaching at undergraduate levelTeaching is a means of transmitting new research knowledgeTeachers can model and encourage a research/critical inquiry approach to learningTeaching and research share a symbiotic relationship in a learning community
10How are Teaching and Research Related? Interviews suggest: Little or no ConnectionScant evidence of thisTransmissionContent of teaching – leading edge knowledgeModel and Encourage a Research/Critical ApproachResearch provides teaching with criticalityTeaching involves an inquiry-based approach to learningSymbiotic RelationshipResearch encourages teacher enthusiasm and inspirationResearch and teaching both involve learning
11Parkside Academic“…Chartered Teachers studies module…I formed a study group and I had been researching the notion of communities of teachers as learners…the group determines the activities that they will do… It is pursuing inquiry and what do we mean by inquiry so we will research that notion… I will tape discussions or ask for individual responses… So if you like that is a demonstration of the link between my research and teaching.”
12Boyer’s (1990) Notions of Scholarship The scholarship of discovery or ‘traditional research’The scholarship of integration, which makes connections across subjects/disciplines and contextualises particular disciplines or sub-areasThe scholarship of application (administration and other institutional service), including the practical application of knowledgeThe scholarship of teaching and research on teaching
13Involvement in Scholarship: different forms of scholarship Involvement in Scholarship: different forms of scholarship? Interviews suggest:The Scholarship of IntegrationKeeping up with the literatureKnowing your subjectReading current journals/booksThe Scholarship of TeachingDrayside: encouragement of research into own teaching practice: e.g. school placements, groupwork and assessment practices.
14Research Cultures in Departments Roadside: coherent, inclusive but compartmentalized, strong link to teachingTownside: small research group linked to teaching but culture has permeated furtherParkside: individualised research culture, core researchers and others developing, heavy teaching loadsDrayside: segregated culture, core of researchers (some with relatively little teaching)Grant-town: research a minority activity, most don’t do research to any significant extent
15What Inhibits/Increases Academics’ Involvement in Research What Inhibits/Increases Academics’ Involvement in Research? Interviews suggest:ResourcesTimeHigh teaching (student placements) and administrative workloadsExperience and SkillsResearch know-how: methods, theories, bidding for funding, writing reports, managing staffAnxiety/fear of unknown or failureDepartmental Research CulturesFunding and research assistanceResearch mentorsSeminars and workshops on research/methodsCollaborative research culture
16Drayside Academic“…this school as a whole, there’s scope to do more on that front, to get people on board, rather than having researchers as researchers doing their own thing and the others well trying to grab crumbs that are falling of the table and maybe trying to get their own…there are strong people in this school who I think could have a clearer role to bring more staff on board so they can appreciate how research might influence their teaching, cos that’s what it’s about, you know, teaching will benefit…”
17Is there a Scotland/England Divide? What are the differences? Scottish SystemSeparate National TT system: more isolatedChartered Teacher InitiativeAERS and HEI collaborative researchEnglish systemMore CosmopolitanSome Academics in England believe the Policy Rhetoric - research funding must be selective, teaching can be done by non-active researchers?