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Pulmonary Neoplasia Prof. Frank Carey. Lung Neoplasms r Primary l benign (rare) l malignant (very common) r Metastatic (Very common)

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Presentation on theme: "Pulmonary Neoplasia Prof. Frank Carey. Lung Neoplasms r Primary l benign (rare) l malignant (very common) r Metastatic (Very common)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pulmonary Neoplasia Prof. Frank Carey

2 Lung Neoplasms r Primary l benign (rare) l malignant (very common) r Metastatic (Very common)

3 Male 21 – metastatic osteosarcoma

4 Suspicious lesion on CXR…..

5 Lung abscess

6 Primary Lung Cancer

7 The Size of the Problem 1 r 30,000 new cases of lung cancer per year in England (6,000 in Scotland) r Commonest cause of cancer death (33%) in men r Commonest cause of cancer death in women in Scotland (20%) r 90% mortality 1 year after diagnosis

8 Tobacco smoke…. r polycyclic hydrocarbons r aromatic amines r phenols r nickel r cyanates 20% of smokers die of lung cancer (also suffer laryngeal, cervical, bladder, mouth, oesophageal, colon cancer)

9 Other risk factors….. r Asbestos r nickel r chromates r radiation r atmospheric pollution r (genetics)

10 Clinical Presentation 1 r Local effects l obstruction of airway (pneumonia) l invasion of chest wall (pain) l ulceration (haemoptysis)

11 White tumour obstructing bronchus. Distal area of yellow discolouration represents pneumonia.

12 Clinical Presentation 2 r Metastases l nodes l bones l liver l brain

13 Metastatic small cell lung cancer in liver at autopsy.

14 Clinical Presentation 3 r Systemic effects l weight loss l “ectopic” hormone production u PTH (SQUAMOUS CANCER) u ACTH (SMALL CELL CANCER)

15 Classification of Lung Tumours r Very heterogeneous r 4 common smoking-associated types l adenocarcinoma (35%) l squamous carcinoma (30%) l small cell carcinoma (25%) l large cell carcinoma (10%) r Neuroendocrine tumours r Bronchial gland tumours

16 Squamous carcinoma (keratinising)

17 Adenocarcinoma (gland forming)

18 Adenocarcinoma with mucin (blue stained)

19 Small cell carcinoma

20 Large cell carcinoma

21 A bronchial biopsy

22 Cancer….which type?

23 Malignant cells in cytological specimen


25 Classification r Prognosis r Treatment r Pathogenesis/biology r Epidemiology

26 Prognosis and Histology r Survival time: r Small cell worst (almost all dead in one year) r Large cell worse than squamous or adenocarcinoma


28 Treatment and Histology r Small cell known to be chemosensitive but with rapidly emerging resistance r Surgery the treatment of choice in other types. “Non-small cell” regimens have also been developed in chemotherapy/radiotherapy

29 The most simple classification of lung cancer: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) V. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

30 Molecular Genetic Abnormalities (potential therapeutic targets) r p53, 1q, 3p,9p,11p, Rb p53, Rb, 3pTumour suppressor genes myc, K-ras, her2(neu) mycOncogenes NSCLCSCLC

31 Pathogenesis r Pulmonary epithelium l Bronchial (ciliated, mucous, neuroendocrine, reserve) l Bronchioles/alveoli (Clara cells, types 1 and 2 alveolar lining cells)

32 Bronchial (large airway) Tumours r Squamous metaplasia r Dysplasia r Carcinoma in situ r Invasive malignancy

33 Normal bronchial mucosa

34 Basal cell hyperplasia

35 Squamous metaplasia

36 Dysplasia/carcinoma in situ

37 Peripheral Adenocarcinomas r Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia r Spread of neoplastic cells along alveolar walls (bronchioloalveolar carcinoma) r True invasive adenocarcinoma r THIS PATTERN IS BECOMING COMMONER

38 Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia

39 Prognostic Indicators in Lung Cancer r Tumour stage r Tumour histological subtype

40 TNM staging

41 Other Lung Neoplasms r Carcinoid: Neuroendocrine neoplasms of low grade malignancy r Bronchial gland neoplasms (tumours more often seen in salivary glands) l Adenoid cystic carcinoma l Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

42 Large obstructing carcinoid tumour

43 Carcinoid histology

44 Pleural Neoplasia r Benign tumours rare r Primary malignant neoplasm – mesothelioma (see lecture on pleural disease) r Also a very common site of invasion by lung carcinomas and metastatic cancers

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