Presentation on theme: "GRAMMAR: PASSIVE VOICE"— Presentation transcript:
1 GRAMMAR: PASSIVE VOICE Petr NovotnýGymnázium Dr. Karla Polesného Znojmo
2 GRAMMATICAL VOICE IN ENGLISH The grammatical voice describes the relation between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the involved participants (subject, object, etc).
3 ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE If the subject is the doer (or agent) of the action of the verb, the verb is in the active voice. Eg: The cat chased the mouse. If the subject, however, is the patient (or target) of the action of the verb, the verb is in the passive voice. Eg: The mouse was chased (by the cat).subjectanddoersubjectandtarget
4 THE RELATION BETWEEN ACTIVE AND PASIVE SENTENCE Active voice: The thief stole the money. Passive voice: The money was stolen (by the thief).objectandpatientsubjectanddoer (=agent)doer (=agent)subjectandpatient
5 THE PASSIVE VERB PHRASE The passive form of the verb phrase always contains the pattern:be past participleiswashas beenwill beetc+invitedeatenmadetakenetc
6 THE PASSIVE IN INDIVIDUAL TENSES ExamplePresent simpleThe bridge is painted. The bridges are painted.Past simpleThe bridge was painted. The bridges were painted.Future simpleThe bridge(s) will be painted.Present perfectThe bridge has been painted. The bridges have been painted.Past perfectThe bridge(s) had been painted.Future perfectThe bridge(s) will have been painted.Present continuousThe bridge is being painted.The bridges are being painted.Past continuousThe bridge was being painted.The bridges were being painted.Going to futureThe bridge is going to be painted.The bridges are going to be painted.Used to pastThe bridge(s) used to be painted.
7 THE AGENTIn fact, most passive sentences have no agent phrase. However, if the agent is important, we can put it at the end of the clause after the preposition by. subject + be + past participle + by + the agent The visitors were welcomed by the president. Examples: The Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci. America was discovered by Christopher Columbus. Romeo and Juliet was written by William Shakespeare.
8 PASSIVE WITH DOUBLE-TRANSITIVE VERBS Some verbs take two objects – direct and indirect. Such verbs are called double-transitive verbs. Active voice: John told my brother a story. Passive voice: My brother was told a story (by John).subjectanddoer (=agent)indirect objectdirect objectsubjectdoer (=agent)
9 PREPOSITIONAL PASSIVES The passive is not limited to cases where the object of an active becomes subject. There are also passives, where the noun phrase following a preposition becomes the subject. We put the preposition at the end of the clause. Examples: Active: They have sent for the doctor. Passive: The doctor has been sent for. Active: People are talking about the results. Passive: The results are being talked about. Active: They have done away with the tax. Passive: The tax has been done away with.
10 EXERCISE Make the following sentences passive: a) The police can't find the missing boy. b) Has anyone repaired the machine? c) They had to postpone the meeting. d) They will open the shopping centre in two years. e) Someone is repairing the car.The missing boy can't be found.Has the machine been repaired?The meeting had to be postponed.The shopping centre will be opened in two years.The car is being repaired.
11 EXERCISE Make the following sentences passive, also express the agent: a) Karl Benz made the first car in b) Alcohol causes most traffic accidents. c) Our teachers won't correct these tests. d) This dog has bitten Jane. e) Was Tom driving the car?The first car was made by Karl Benz in 1886.Most traffic accidents are caused by alcohol.These tests won't be corrected by our teachers.Jane has been bitten by this dog.Was the car being driven by Tom?
12 EXERCISE Make the following sentences passive; use the word in bold as subjects of the passive sentence: a) They don't pay George very much. b) They will give the results to Tom. c) They will give the results to Tom. d) They have offered Lucy a new job. e) They have offered Lucy a new job.George isn't paid very much.The results will be given to Tom.Tom will be given the results.A new job has been offered to Lucy.Lucy has been offered a new job.
13 EXERCISE Make the following sentences passive: a) They called upon the President to make a speech. b) Someone has slept in this bed. c) They are going to laugh at me. d) They are looking after Emily. e) They will talk about the event for years.The President was called upon to make a speech.This bed has been slept in.I'm going to be laughed at.Emily is being looked after.The event will be talked about for years.
14 BIBLIOGRAPHYLeech, G.: An A–Z of English Grammar and Usage. London, Nelson English Language Teaching Murphy, R.: English Grammar in Use. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press Wikipedia contributors. "Voice (grammar)." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 6 Apr