Presentation on theme: "THE AGE OF REVOLUTIONS FRANCE. In the 18 th century France was governed by absolute monarchy. This was that the king had power over everyone. He believed."— Presentation transcript:
In the 18 th century France was governed by absolute monarchy. This was that the king had power over everyone. He believed that he got his power from God. This was known as the diving right of kings.
FRANCE France was ruled by Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette. Louis was an absolute monarch. He was a weak and disinterested king. Marie Antoinette was disliked for being Austrian and not French and for her extravagance.
FRANCE Louis and Marie Antoinette lived at the lavish palace of Versailles.
FRANCE – THE 3 ESTATES (classes) The First Estate: the clergy The clergy received a tithe (tax) from people for praying for them. They paid no tax. Bishops were rich and powerful. The Second Estate: the nobles Most powerful people in France, after the king. They paid no tax and had good jobs. They received tax from peasants. The Third Estate: everyone else Workers and peasant farmers were worst off and could often not afford to eat. The middle classes did not get good jobs. They all had to pay taxes to the clergy and nobles.
CAUSES OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION UNHAPPINESS OF THE THIRD ESTATE ABSOLUTE MONARCHY THE AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE NOBILITY & CLERGY RECEIVING TAXES AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT FALL OF THE BASTILLE MEETING OF THE ESTATES- GENERAL
PROGRESS OF THE REVOLUTION The National Assembly abolishes privileges of the nobility & clergy. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen said all were equal. ‘Liberty, Equality, Fraternity’ Market women & fishwives marched to Versailles. Louis XVI plotted to escape to Austria but was captured. War broke out between France and Austria. The sans-culottes (working class) put the king and his family in jail. France became a republic in 1792. the king and his wife were executed. Reign of Terror
MATCH THE TERM TO THE EXPLANATION Le Marseillaise Guillotine Bastille The French army barracks The French national anthem A tool used to cut off people’s heads
Maximilien Robespierre was a F_____ revolutionary leader. He was trained as a l_____ and was elected to the T____ E_____. He favoured all three Estates meeting as one. He supported the ideas of the revolution – ‘L______, E_______, F_________’. After King Louis XVI tried to organise help from outside of France, Robespierre voted for the e________ of the king. Robespierre was a member of the Jacobins, a political group in revolutionary France. As France was faced with more trouble, Robespierre believed that strong g_________ and a r____ o_ t_____ were needed to save the revolution. France was in danger from war as Britain, Holland and Spain joined Austria and Prussia against the revolution. The C________ o_ P_____ S_____ was set up to overcome the dangers and its p________ was Robespierre.
MAXIMILIEN ROBESPIERRE Apart from the war, Robespierre and the Committee faced dangers from opposition to the revolution from nobles and r________ in different parts of France. Robespierre decided that violence and terror were the only ways to save the revolution. He brought in the Law of Suspects, which punished anyone thought to be against the r_________. About 2,500 people were killed in Paris and over 16,000 in the rest of France, many by the g_________, the new symbol of the r____ o_ t_____. Robespierre put down r_________ in different parts of France with great cruelty, including 30,000 killed in Lyons. To fight the war Robespierre organised mass enlistment in the French a____. There were over 1 million soldiers in the French army, much larger than the other armies. The French a___ saved the revolution from defeat.
MAXIMILIEN ROBESPIERRE The Robespierre brought in the Law of Maximum which controlled rising prices by putting a maximum price on any goods. Robespierre and the Committee succeeded in overcoming the problems they faced, but they did this by using methods which were very harsh. Once the revolution was no longer in danger, people expected that Robespierre would ease off the harsh measures. But he didn’t, so many people, including the s___-c_______, turned against him. They thought he had too much power. He was shouted down when he spoke in the Assembly. He was later arrested and tried. He was g__________ and over a hundred of his supporters were also executed.
RESULTS OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION Napoleon took control of France. He established the Napoleonic Code, which influenced European laws. The ideas of ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’ spread and influenced other countries. Ireland was influenced by the French Revolution and the French helped Wolfe Tone. Abolition of Slavery Middle-class power. Metric system.