18 The Harlem Renaissance Section 5The Harlem Renaissance
19 Marcus Garvey (Jamaican born immigrant) established the Universal Negro Improvement Association believed in Black prideadvocated racial segregation b/c of Black superiorityGarvey believed Blacks should return to Africahe purchased a ship to start the Black Star lineattracted many investments: gov't charged him with w/fraudhe was found guilty and eventually deported to Jamaica, but his organization continued to exist
91 Marcus Garvey - leader of the black working class, advocated a return to Africa Preached separation from white society and encouraged pride in their African heritage.Jailed for mail fraud in 1925, some of his ideas were revived in the 1960s.
92 The Harlem Renaissance I. New “Black Consciousness”Migrants face changes and challengesFound better pay in the North leads to better lifeDidn’t escape racism or segregationAf. Amer. migration to North continuesGarvey calls for Black PrideUrges support for black-run businessesWants blacks to separate from whitesPromotes “Back to Africa” campaignGarvey convicted of fraud movement fails but ideas remain
93 The Jazz Age The musical innovation of the decade! Started in New Orleans with African rhythms and songs, followed the Misssissippi to northern cities.Both black and white music lovers frequented nightclubs to hear Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Billie Holiday and others.
94 In the early 1920s, Louis Armstrong joined King Oliver in Chicago--playing solos with Fletcher Henderson at the Roseland Ballroom in New York and making jazz history with the Hot Five. It was in Chicago that he initiated his "scat" singing -- singing nonsense syllables in place of words and vocally simulating instrumental sound.
98 Notes continued II. The Jazz Age-coined by F. Scott Fitzgerald A. Uniquely American Music1. Jazz emerged from the South, esp. New Orleans, and Midwest2. Jazz migrated North and West3. Famous musicians: Louis Armstrong, Bessie Smith, Duke EllingtonB. Jazz wins worldwide popularity1. Jazz a symbol of the 20’s, Prohibition, & speakeasies
99 Harlem RenaissanceBlack intellectuals created a thriving Afro-American culture in new York’s Harlem.Poets, artists, novelists, and musicians reach back to their African roots to demonstrate the richness of their racial heritage.Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, Zora Neale Hurston, Claude McKay, James Weldon JohnsonThese artists inspire and encourage African Americans to remain strong in the face of racial violence.
100 Langston Hughes I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchenWhen company comes,But I laugh,And eat well,And grow strong.Tomorrow,I'll be at the tableWhen company comes.Nobody'll dareSay to me,"Eat in the kitchen,"Then.Besides,They'll see how beautiful I amAnd be ashamed -I, too, am America.Langston Hughes
101 StorytellerZora Neal Hurston“I saw no curse in being black.”
102 Notes ContinuedIII. The Harlem Renaissance--Af. Amer. novelists, poets, artists.A. Af. Amer. Literature blooms1. “New Negro” = a racial break with the past2. explored pains & 2. Writers joys of being black in America.3. Famous writers: Claude McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, Langston HughesB. Harlem Renaissance’s lasting impact1. Gave voice to Af. Amer. Culture2. Altered the way both white and black viewed Af. Amer. Culture3. Gave blacks a sense of group identify and solidarity